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Abstract

The excessive use of pesticides is a problem in most parts of the world today because of their broad and unspecific target range that is considerably harmful. The accumulation of several chemical insecticide residues based on chlorpyrifos-methyl, organochlorine, different isomers of HCH, DDT etc., in Triticum aestivum L. plants can be dangerous. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop potential and safer alternative measures. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major cereal crop grown and used for food, animal feed, beverages and furniture accessories in most parts of the world. It also serves as a host to various insect pests. Our previous studies showed the insecticidal potency and specificity of short ssDNA oligonucleotides from the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP-2 and IAP-3) genes of Lymantria dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) against gypsy moth (L. dispar) larvae, a possible insect pest of non-host plants like wheat. Consequently, the present study analyzes the effects of ssDNA oligonucleotides used as DNA insecticides on wheat (T. aestivum) plant biomass, plant organs and some biochemical parameters as a marker of the safety margin on non-target organisms. The results obtained on plant biomass showed that groups treated with ssDNA oligonucleotides at concentrations of 0.01 pmol · μl−1, 0.1 pmol · μl−1 and 1 pmol · μl−1 varied in comparison with the control group, but remained harmless to plant growth and development, while the treatment concentration of 0.001 pmol · μl−1 did not affect the plant biomass. The glucose, protein and phosphorous biochemical parameters, analyzed after 21 days, showed that the ssDNA oligonucleotides used were equally safe. The data obtained for the plant organs (leaves and root lengths) indicate that the phenomenon of DNA insecticides can be further studied and developed for plant protection while improving the growth of plant organs even for a non-target organism such as wheat T. aestivum plants.
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Abstract

The problem of deposit protection and the process of liquidation of mining plants does not find effective solutions in the national law. Nevertheless, this is a very up-to-date issue. This situation prompted the authors of the article to once again analyze these issues. The number of abandoned exploitation sites which were published in the Polish Geological Institute reports should affect the entire licensing system and the state’s raw material policy. As a good host of raw materials, which we have been given by Earth Mother, we cannot allow that the mining licensing system, the liquidation procedures of mining plants without due diligence, result in the lack of protection of these deposits. The rational raw material economy and the ability to exploit it for the future generations, while failing to effectively enforce the site liquidation process makes it necessary to take actions leading to not blocking the mineral deposits in this way. The analysis shows what appropriate actions should be taken. The authors have thoroughly investigated the legal regulations over the past century, compiling them with the current legislation, and pointing out the weaknesses of the system in the field of deposits protection, particularly in the part of the unexploited deposits. Criticism covered both the statutory regulations – Geological and mining law as well as executive acts in the field of deposit protection. A separate analysis was subjected to the procedure of liquidation of the mining plants in the aspect of deposits protection, for mining plants operating on the basis of the Province Marshal’s licenses. The process presented in the flowchart layout clearly shows the weak points of the currently operating system.
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Abstract

Currently more and more research is being done on integrated weed management to reduce or avoid herbicide use. Some growers are already using isotherapic dilutions to control weeds in organic farming. Isotherapy is different from homeopathy because it uses diluted and potentized (succussed) solutions of alcoholic macerate of the very pest causing health troubles. We set up a germination experiment to test if isotherapic dilutions of leaf macerate of annual ryegrass affect the dynamics of its seed germination in Petri dishes. Our results were diverse, from no effect to 10% more growing degree days necessary to reach 50% germination. It is doubtful that so low an effect will contribute to integrated weed management unless the slightly delayed germination triggers secondary effects at other life stages. This is in accordance with the scientific literature on that topic: two-fifths of the reports showed no effect, two-fifths resulted in positive responses and one-fifth had diverse responses for the criteria tested.
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