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Abstract

The molluscicidal activity of six monoterpenes and two phenylpropenes against Theba pisana adults was evaluated using fumigation and direct contact methods. In the fumigant toxicity assay, (-)-citronellal showed the highest toxicity with LC50 value of 7.79 μl · l−1 air after 24 h of treatment, followed by (-)-terpinen-4-ol (LC50 = 12.06 μl · l−1), (-)-menthone (LC50 = 12.28 μl · l−1 air) and p-cymene (LC50 = 16.07 μl · l−1 air). Eugenol and trans-cinnamaldehyde were the most potent contact toxicants against T. pisana. Their LD50 values were 0.18 and 0.29 mg · snail−1 after 24 h of treatment, respectively. These two compounds were more toxic than a reference molluscicide, methomyl. In contrast, α-terpinene and (-)-citronellal were the least toxic compounds. In another experiment, the synergistic effect of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on tested monoterpenes and phenylpropenes by topical application was examined. The results showed that the toxicity of the tested compounds was increased when mixed with PBO at a ratio [compound/PBO (1 : 2)] except for α-pinene and (-)-terpinen-4-ol in which the toxicity of binary mixtures was less than for single compounds. The synergistic effect of PBO improved with increased exposure time. The highest synergistic effect was observed with (-)-menthone and α-terpinene with synergistic ratios of 9.25 and 4.37, respectively. Monoterpenes and phenylpropenes and their mixtures with PBO described herein merit further studies as potential T. pisana control agents.
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