This study analysed the influence of montelukast (MON; 10-8 - 10-4 M), a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLTR1) antagonist, on the contractility of the porcine uterine smooth muscle in the luteal phase of the oesterous cycle (n=8) and in early pregnancy (n=8). Stimulation of uterine strips in the luteal phase with MON has been shown to significantly reduce the amplitude of con- tractions, but not to affect the tension or frequency of contractions. A statistically significant tension increase and decrease in the frequency and amplitude of contractions was observed in pigs in early pregnancy. This suggests that MON has a different effect on the parameters under study in cyclic and pregnant pigs.
Copper slag is a by-product obtained during smelting and refining of copper. Copper smelting slag typically contains about 1 wt.% copper and 40 wt.% iron depending upon the initial ore quality and the furnace type. Main components of copper slag are iron oxide and silica. These exist in copper slag mainly in the form of fayalite (2FeO ·SiO2). This study was intended to recover pig iron from the copper smelting slag by reduction smelting method. At the reaction temperature of below 1400°С the whole copper smelting slag was not smelted, and some agglomerated, showing a mass in a sponge form. The recovery behavior of pig iron from copper smelting slag increases with increasing smelting temperature and duration. The recovery rate of pig iron varied greatly depending on the reaction temperature.
Animals as a source of organs and tissues for xenotransplantation could become a backup solution for the growing shortage of human donors. The presence of human xenoreactive anti- bodies directed against Galα1,3Gal antigens on the cell surface of a pig donor triggers the activa- tion of the complement leading to a hyperacute reaction. The development of genetic engineer- ing techniques has enabled the modification of genomes by knocking in and/or knocking out genes. In this paper, we report the generation of modified pigs with ZFN mediated disruption of the GGTA1 gene encoding the enzyme responsible for synthesis of Galα1,3Gal antigens. ZFN plasmids designed to target the exon 9 region of the pig GGTA1 gene encoding the catalytic domain were injected into the pronuclei of fertilized egg cells. Among 107 piglets of the F0 gene- ration analyzed, one female with 9-nt deletion in exon 9 of the GGTA1 gene was found. 13 of 33 piglets of the F1 generation represented the +/- GGTA1 genotype and 2 of 13 F2 piglets repre- sented the -/- GGTA1 genotype. No changes in the animals’ behavior, phenotype or karyotype were observed. Analysis confirmed heredity of the trait in all animals. A complex functional analysis of the modified animals, including flow cytometry, human serum cytotoxicity test and immunohistochemical detection, was performed to estimate the phenotype effect of genetic modification and this indicated an efficient GGTA1 knock-out in modified pigs.
We consider the manure removal system, which is used in most pig farms being built and reconstructed at present in Ukraine, and it has been discovered that there are major mistakes during the baths construction in the correct geometry and depth, and therefore discusses their rules of operation. If the baths geometry is wrongly executed, for instance, if the slope is made to slant toward the bottom of the tub filler drain pipe, which in itself is unacceptable, or not properly executed in the form of a special pit steps towards the neck drain, and etc., then a number of problems is inherent of its exploitation. The basic requirements for laying fused-pipe is compliance with its slope. The considered equipment must be equipped with pumping stations to pump manure. The pumps for pumping manure: submersible sewage pumps and dry-installed in the mine and long sewage pumps with electric or PTO shaft of a tractor were analyzed. Attention was paid to the designing of modern equipment for the distribution of manure waste into fractions. The classification of manure storage and the basic requirements for their placement and arrangement was carried out, and recommendations are made for the designing of pumping stations, to select pumps for the pumping stations and the design during the modern construction and reconstruction of old pig farms.
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), is a multifunctional protein that participates in a variety of regulatory processes of signal transduction and gene expression. To further characterize the significance of hnRNP K in different male germ cells, we investigated the expression profiles of hnRNP K at different developmental stages in pig and rat testes, and conducted a comparative analysis of expression patterns between these two species. In porcine testis development, both the mRNA and protein level of hnRNP K were down-regulated from 3 months to 8 months. However, the expression level of hnRNP K was abundant across the embryonic period in rats, and decreased gradually from 0 day post partum (dpp) to 14 dpp, then increased with the highest level presenting at 90 dpp. Immunolocalization analysis further confirmed the differential expression and localization of hnRNP K protein during testis development in pigs and rats. The results showed that hnRNP K was widely distributed in gonocytes, spermatogonia, sertoli cells and Leydig cells. The dynamic expression profile of hnRNP K may imply its crucial and potential roles in the development of the testis, which will provide a theoretical basis for the future study of molecular mechanism regulation of spermatogenesis.
Culture gas atmosphere is one of the most important factors affecting embryo development in vitro. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of CO concentration on the subsequent pre-implantation developmental capacity of pig embryos in vitro, including embryos obtained via parthenogenesis, in vitro fertilization (IVF), and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Pig embryos were developed in four different CO2 concentrations in air: 3%, 5%, 10%, or 15%. The cleavage rate of pig parthenogenetic, IVF, or ICSI embryos developed in CO2 concen- trations under 5% was the highest. There were no significant differences in the oocyte cleavage rate in ICSI embryos in CO2 concentrations under 3% and 5% (p>0.05). However, as CO2 levels increased (up to 15%) the blastocyst output on day 7, from parthenogenetic, IVF, and ICSI em- bryos, decreased to 0%. These findings demonstrate that CO2 positively affects the developmen- tal capacity of pig embryos. However, high or low CO2 levels do not significantly improve the developmental capacity of pig embryos. The best results were obtained for all of the pig embryos at a 5% CO2 concentration.
The present study investigated the expression of androgen receptor (AR) in neurons of the anterior pelvic ganglion (APG) and celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion (CSMG; ganglion not involved in the innervation of reproductive organs) in the male pig with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry. qPCR investigations revealed that the level of AR gene expression in the APG tissue was approximately 2.5 times higher in the adult (180-day-old) than in the juvenile (7-day-old) boars. Furthermore, in both the adult and juvenile animals it was sig- nificantly higher in the APG than in CSMG tissue (42 and 85 times higher, respectively). Immu- nofluorescence results fully confirmed those obtained with qPCR. In the adult boars, nearly all adrenergic (DβH-positive) and the majority of non-adrenergic neurons in APG stained for AR. In the juvenile animals, about half of the adrenergic and non-adrenergic neurons were AR-posi- tive. In both the adult and juvenile animals, only solitary CSMG neurons stained for AR. The present results suggest that in the male pig, pelvic neurons should be considered as an element of highly testosterone-dependent autonomic circuits involved in the regulation of urogenital func- tion, and that their sensitization to androgens is a dynamic process, increasing during the prepu- bertal period.
The aim was to explore the feasibility of using bamboo vinegar powder as an antibiotics substitute in weaning piglets. Forty-five healthy Duroc × Landrance × Yorshire piglets (weight 6.74 ± 0.17 kg; age 31 days) were randomly divided into the control group (basic diet), ANT group (basic diet + 0.12% compound antibiotics), BV1 group (basic diet + 0.1% bamboo vinegar powder), BV5 group (basic diet + 0.5% bamboo vinegar powder) and BV10 group (basic diet + 1% bamboo vinegar powder). MyD88 and CD14 expression in immune tissues was examined using real-time PCR. MyD88 expression in the control group were significantly lower than that in other groups in all tissues (p<0.05), while CD14 expression showed the opposite trend. MyD88 expression was significantly higher in the BV10 group than in other groups in lung tissue (P<0.05), significantly higher in the ANT group than in the BV1 group in the kidneys (P<0.05), significantly higher in the BV10 group than in the BV1 group in the thymus (P<0.05), and signifi- cantly higher in the BV1 group than in the BV10 group in the lymphatic tissue (P<0.05). These differences between experimental groups were not observed for the CD14 gene (P>0.05). Thus, adding bamboo vinegar powder to the basic diet of weaning piglets had immune effects similar to antibiotics and the effect was dose-dependent. Moreover, the MyD88 and CD14 genes appear to play a role in these immune effects
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the anterior chamber constitutes part of the normal migratory pathway of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in cattle and swine. The cells obtained from aqueous humor of cows and pigs were stained for CD4 and CD8 receptors, and subsequently analyzed with flow cytometry. The mean percentage of CD4+CD8-, CD4-CD8+ and CD4+CD8+ cells within the total lymphocyte population of the bovine anterior chamber was, respectively, 17.88, 12.64 and 27.26%. In turn, the mean values of these parameters in pigs were 1.77, 38.48 and 17.45, respectively. Among bovine and porcine CD4+CD8+ cells prevalent were those displaying CD4lowCD8low and CD4lowCD8high phenotypes, respectively. The results suggest that the anterior chamber in cattle and swine is an element in the normal migratory pathway of CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+CD8+ cells. Furthermore, the contribution of these subsets in the anterior chamber lymphocyte population can differ considerably between animal species.