The results of experimental investigations on the removal of NOx from gases applying ozone as the oxidizing agent and the absorption of higher nitrogen oxides in the sodium hydroxide solutions are presented. The experiment was conducted using a pilot plant installation with the air flow rate 200 m3/h, being a prototype of a boiler flue gas duct and a FGD scrubber. It was shown that in the range of [NOref] = 50 ÷ 250 ppm the mechanism of NO ozonation depends on the molar ratio X = O3/NOref: for X ≤ 1.0 oxidation of NO to NO2 predominates and NO2 is poorly absorbed, for X >> 1.0 NO2 undergoes further oxidation to N2O5, which is efficiently absorbed in the scrubber. The stoichiometric molar ratio of complete conversion of NO into N2O5 is X = 1.5, in these studies to reach the effectiveness η ≥ 90% the molar ratio X was much higher (2.75).
The paper presents results of experimental studies on removal of NOx from flue gas via NO ozonation and wet scrubbing of products of NO oxidation in NaOH solutions. The experiment was conducted in a pilot plant installation supplied with flue gas from a coal-fired boiler at the flow rate 200 m3/h. The initial mole fraction of NOx,ref in flue gas was approx. 220 ppm, the molar ratio X = O3/NOref varied between 0 and 2.5. Ozone (O3 content 1÷5% in oxygen) was injected into the flue gas channel before the wet scrubber. The effect of the mole ratio X, the NaOH concentration in the absorbent, the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) and the initial NOx concentration on the efficiency of NOx removal was examined. Two domains of the molar ratio X were distinguished in which denitrification was governed by different mechanisms: for X ≤ 1.0 oxidation of NO to NO2 predominates with slow absorption of NO2, for X >> 1.0 NO2 undergoes further oxidation to higher oxides being efficiently absorbed in the scrubber. At the stoichiometric conditions (X = 1) the effectiveness of NO oxidation was better than 90%. However, the effectiveness of NOx removal reached only 25%. When ozonation was intensified (X ≥ 2.25) about 95% of NOx was removed from flue gas. The concentration of sodium hydroxide in the aqueous solution and the liquid-to-gas ratio in the absorber had little effect on the effectiveness of NOx removal for X > 2.
The aim of this study was to measure the NO level in boar semen held in a liquid state and to determine its putative relation to spermatozoa motility, plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content. Generally, the percentage of spermatozoa which generated nitric oxide gradually increased, while NO level in the surrounding medium declined during the liquid preservation. NO generation in semen preserved in BTS was higher as compared to those in Androhep®Plus. We demonstrated the positive correlation between the NO level in fresh spermatozoa and their quality. We also showed negative correlation between nitric oxide level in spermatozoa preserved in BTS and sperm cells motility as well as plasma membrane integrity. Results obtained in this study confirm that NO may affect sperm physiology in a dualistic manner.
A process capable of NOx control by ozone injection gained wide attention as a possible alternative to proven post combustion technologies such as selective catalytic (and non-catalytic) reduction. The purpose of the work was to develop a numerical model of NO oxidation with O3 that would be capable of providing guidelines for process optimisation during different design stages. A Computational Fluid Dynamics code was used to simulate turbulent reacting flow. In order to reduce computation expense a 11-step global NO - O3 reaction mechanism was implemented into the code. Model performance was verified by the experiment in a tubular flow reactor for two injection nozzle configurations and for two O3/NO ratios of molar fluxe. The objective of this work was to estimate the applicability of a simplified homogeneous reaction mechanism in reactive turbulent flow simulation. Quantitative conformity was not completely satisfying for all examined cases, but the final effect of NO oxidation was predicted correctly at the reactor outlet.
Adsorption experiments of nitric oxide in nitrogen carrier gas were held on activated carbon in a fixed bed flow system. Breakthrough curves describing the dependence of exit concentrations of nitric oxide on time were matched with theoretical response curves calculated from the linear driving force model (LDF). The model assumes Langmuir adsorption isotherm for the description of non-linear equilibrium and overall mass transfer coefficient for mass transfer mechanism. Overall mass transfer coefficients were obtained by the method of least squares for fitting numerically modelled breakthrough curves with experimental breakthrough curves. It was found that LDF model fits all the breakthrough curves and it is a useful tool for modelling purposes.