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Number of results: 50
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Abstract

The results of testing the strength properties of experimental ceramic materials containing spending moulding sand after initial mechanical reclamation as a material for subsequent layers of the stucco composition were presented. Tests were carried out on spent moulding sands from various foundry technologies, i.e. sand with furfuryl resin and sand with hydrated sodium silicate. The spent, agglomerated moulding sand has undergone a crushing process. Next, the required granular fractions used for individual layers of the stucco material were separated. Ceramic samples, in which the spent moulding sand was a substitute for fresh silica sand in successive layers of the stucco composition, were prepared. As a reference material, identical ceramic samples were used but with all layers made from the fresh silica sand. Samples prepared in this way were used to determine the bending strength of ceramic materials in the temperature range from 20 to 900ºC. The obtained values of the bending strength have demonstrated that spent moulding sand can be used in investment casting with no adverse effect on the strength of ceramic materials.
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Abstract

In this work, the influence of microwave drying parameters such as irradiation time and microwave power level on the properties of synthetic moulding sands is presented. Determination of compressive strength Rc s, shear strength Rt s and permeability Ps of synthetic moulding sands with the addition of two different bentonites, after drying process with variable microwave parameters were made. The research works were carried out using the microwave oven with regulated power range of the electromagnetic field. From the results obtained, the significant influence of both drying time and microwave power level on the selected properties of moulding sands was observed. In comparison to the conventional drying method, microwave drying allows to obtain higher compressive strength of the synthetic moulding sand. The influence of application microwave irradiation on permeability was not observed. Higher strength characteristics and shorter drying time are major advantages of application of the electromagnetic irradiation for drying of the synthetic moulding sand with regard to conventional drying method.
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Abstract

The aim of the hereby paper is to present the developed model of determining the volume and surface porosity based on the main fraction of polifractional materials, its experimental verification and utilisation for the interpretation of effects accompanying the formation of a moulding sand apparent density, porosity and permeability in the blowing processes of the core and moulds technology.
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Abstract

Using the available analytical methods, including the determination of chemical composition using wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy technique and phase composition determined using X-ray diffraction, microstructural observations in a highresolution scanning microscope equipped with an X-ray microanalysis system as well as determination of characteristic softening and sintering temperatures using high-temperature microscope, the properties of particular chromite sands were defined. For the study has been typed reference sand with chemical properties, physical and thermal, treated as standard, and the sands of the regeneration process and the grinding process. Using these kinds of sand in foundries resulted in the occurrence of the phenomenon of the molding mass sintering. Impurities were identified and causes of sintering of a moulding sand based on chromite sand were characterized. Next, research methods enabling a quick evaluation of chromite sand suitability for use in the preparation of moulding sands were selected.
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Abstract

Ablation casting is a technological process in which the increased cooling rate causes microstructure refinement, resulting in improved mechanical properties of the final product. This technology is particularly suitable for the manufacture of castings with intricate shapes and thin walls. Currently, the ablation casting process is not used in the Polish industry. This article presents the results of strength tests carried out on moulding sands based on hydrated sodium silicate hardened in the Floster S technology, intended for ablation casting of the AlSi7Mg (AK7) aluminium alloy. When testing the bending and tensile strengths of sands, parameters such as binder and hardener content were taken into account. The sand mixtures were tested after 24h hardening at room temperature. The next stage of the study describes the course of the ablation casting process, starting with the manufacture of foundry mould from the selected moulding mixture and ending in tests carried out on the ready casting to check the surface quality, structure and mechanical properties. The results were compared with the parallel results obtained on a casting gravity poured into the sand mould and solidifying in a traditional way at ambient temperature.
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Abstract

Until now, the mould sand in general use in the foundry industry are based on bentonite, which resulted from the fact that a good recognition properties and phenomena associated with this material. Come to know and normalized content of montmorillonite and carbonates and their important role in the construction of bentonite, and mass properties of the participation of compressive strength or scatter. Halloysite is widely used in industry and beyond them. However, little is known about its use in the foundry in Poland and abroad. This article presents preliminary research conducted at the Foundry Department of Silesian University of Technology on this material. Will raise the question of the representation of this two materials, which contains information connected with history and formation of materials, their structure and chemical composition. In the research, the results of compressive strength tests in wet masses of quartz matrix, where as a binder is used halloysite and bentonite in different proportions.
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the applicability of a new product added to water glass-containing foundry sands hardened with ethylene glycol diacetate. The new additive designated by the symbol "B" is a composition of aqueous solutions of modified polyalcohols, improving the sand knocking out properties. The scope of studies included testing various mechanical and technological properties of foundry sand mixtures, such as permeability, friability, life cycle of cores and knocking out properties. In the technological studies, two types of water glass with different values of the silica modulus and density, designated as R145 and R150, were used. Moulding sands were prepared with the additive "B". For comparison, reference sands with water glass but without the additive "B" were also made. In Part I of the article, the results of studies of the effect of additive "B" on the properties of foundry sands with water glass hardened by CO2 blowing were discussed.
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Abstract

Modern investigation methods and equipment for the quality estimation of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in their circulation process, are presented in the paper. These methods, utilising the special equipment combined with the authors investigation methods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH the University of Science and Technology, allow for the better estimation of the matrix quality. Moulding sands systems with organic binders require an in-depth approach to factors deciding on the matrix technological suitability as well as on their environmental impact. Into modern methods allowing for the better assessment of the matrix quality belongs the grain size analysis of the reclaimed material performed by means of the laser diffraction and also the estimation of the moulding sand gas evolution rate and identification of the emitted gases and their BTEX group gases content, since they are specially hazardous from the point of view of the Occupational Safety and Health.
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Abstract

Recently, some major changes have occurred in the structure of the European foundry industry, such as a rapid development in the production of castings from compacted graphite iron and light alloys at the expense of limiting the production of steel castings. This created a significant gap in the production of heavy steel castings (exceeding the weight of 30 Mg) for the metallurgical, cement and energy industries. The problem is proper moulding technology for such heavy castings, whose solidification and cooling time may take even several days, exposing the moulding material to a long-term thermal and mechanical load. Owing to their technological properties, sands with organic binders (synthetic resins) are the compositions used most often in industrial practice. Their main advantages include high strength, good collapsibility and knocking out properties, as well as easy mechanical reclamation. The main disadvantage of these sands is their harmful effect on the environment, manifesting itself at various stages of the casting process, especially during mould pouring. This is why new solutions are sought for sands based on organic binders to ensure their high technological properties but at the same time less harmfulness for the environment. This paper discusses the possibility of reducing the harmful effect of sands with furfuryl binders owing to the use of resins with reduced content of free furfuryl alcohol and hardeners with reduced sulphur content. The use of alkyd binder as an alternative to furfuryl binder has also been proposed and possible application of phenol-formaldehyde resins was considered.
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Abstract

The cumulative results of investigations of the possibility of using the reclaimed materials after the mechanical, thermal or mechanical-thermal reclamation for making cores by means of the blowing method in the alkaline CO2 technology, are presented in the paper. Three kinds of spent sands: with furfuryl resin, bentonite and alkaline phenolic resin, obtained from the foundry, were subjected to three kinds of reclamation: mechanical, thermal and combined mechanical-thermal, applying for this aim adequate experimental devices. The obtained reclaims were assessed with regard to the degree of the matrix liberation from the determined binding material. Reclaims of moulding sands with binders of the form of resin were assessed with regard to ignition loss values and pH reaction, while reclaims of moulding sands with bentonite with regard to the residual clay content and pH value. In all cases the results of the performed sieve analyses were estimated and the average characteristic diameter dl was determined. The reclaimed matrix was applied as a full substitute of the fresh high-silica sand in typical procedures of preparing core sands used for making shaped samples for bending strength investigations, Rg u .
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Abstract

The results of investigations of the influence of the matrix grain sizes on properties of cores made by the blowing method are presented in the hereby paper. Five kinds of matrices, differing in grain size compositions, determined by the laser diffraction method in the Analysette 22NanoTec device, were applied in investigations. Individual kinds of matrices were used for making core sands in the Cordis technology. From these sands the shaped elements, for determining the apparent density of compacted sands and their bending strength, were made by the blowing method. The shaped elements (cores) were made at shooting pressures being 3, 4 and 5 atn. The bending strength of samples were determined directly after their preparation and after the storing time of 1 hour.
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Abstract

The paper presents the idea of the integrated recycling system of used moulding sands with organic resins. A combination of the method of forecasting averaged ignition loss values of moulding sands after casting and defining the range of necessary matrix reclamation treatments in order to obtain its full recycling constitutes the basics of this process. The results of own investigations, allowing to combine ignition loss values of spent moulding sands after casting knocking out with amounts of dusts generated during the mechanical reclamation treatment of such sands, were utilized in the system.
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Abstract

Core sands for blowing processes, belong to these sands in which small amount of the applied binding material has the ability of covering the sand matrix surface in a way which - at relatively small coating thickness - allows to achieve the high strength. Although the deciding factor constitute, in this aspect, strength properties of a binder, its viscosity and ability to moisten the matrix surface, the essential meaning for the strength properties of the prepared moulding sand and the mould has the packing method of differing in sizes sand grains with the coating of the binding material deposited on their surfaces. The knowledge of the influence of the compaction degree of grains forming the core on the total contact surface area can be the essential information concerning the core strength. Forecasting the strength properties of core sands, at known properties of the applied chemically hardened binder and the quartz matrix, requires certain modifications of the existing theoretical models. They should be made more realistic with regard to assumptions concerning grain sizes composition of quartz sands and the packing structure deciding on the active surface area of the contacts between grains of various sizes and - in consequence - on the final strength of cores.
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Abstract

In the paper, a research on effects of baking temperature on chromite sand base of moulding sands bonded with sodium silicate is presented. Pure chromite sand and its chromite-based moulding sand prepared with use of sodium silicate were subjected to heating within 100 to 1200 °C. After cooling-down, changes of base grains under thermal action were determined. Chromite moulding sand was prepared with use of 0.5 wt% of domestic made, unmodified sodium silicate (water-glass) grade 145. After baking at elevated temperatures, creation of rough layer was observed on grain surfaces, of both pure chromite sand and that used as base of a moulding sand. Changes of sand grains were evaluated by scanning microscopy and EDS analyses. It was found that changes on grain surfaces are of laminar nature. The observed layer is composed of iron oxide (II) that is one of main structural components of chromite sand. In order to identify changes in internal structure of chromite sand grains, polished sections were prepared of moulding sand hardened with microwaves and baked at elevated temperatures. Microscopic observations revealed changes in grains structure in form of characteristically crystallised acicular particles with limited magnesium content, intersecting at various angles. EDS analysis showed that these particles are composed mostly of chromium oxide (III) and iron oxide (II). The temperature above that the a.m. changes are observed in both chromite-based moulding sand and in pure chromite sand. The observed phenomena were linked with hardness values and mass of this sand.
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Abstract

In the paper, a research on effects of baking temperature on chromite sand base of moulding sands bonded with sodium silicate is presented. Pure chromite sand and its chromite-based moulding sand prepared with use of sodium silicate were subjected to heating within 100 to 1200 °C. After cooling-down, changes of base grains under thermal action were determined. Chromite moulding sand was prepared with use of 0.5 wt% of domestic made, unmodified sodium silicate (water-glass) grade 145. After baking at elevated temperatures, creation of rough layer was observed on grain surfaces, of both pure chromite sand and that used as base of a moulding sand. Changes of sand grains were evaluated by scanning microscopy and EDS analyses. It was found that changes on grain surfaces are of laminar nature. The observed layer is composed of iron oxide (II) that is one of main structural components of chromite sand. In order to identify changes in internal structure of chromite sand grains, polished sections were prepared of moulding sand hardened with microwaves and baked at elevated temperatures. Microscopic observations revealed changes in grains structure in form of characteristically crystallised acicular particles with limited magnesium content, intersecting at various angles. EDS analysis showed that these particles are composed mostly of chromium oxide (III) and iron oxide (II). The temperature above that the a.m. changes are observed in both chromite-based moulding sand and in pure chromite sand. The observed phenomena were linked with hardness values and mass of this sand.
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of laboratory tests into the effects of moisture and the content of two types of bentonite on dielectric properties of moulding sand. The use of electromagnetic waves in foundry industry is becoming more and more popular, which provides to some extent alternatives to conventional drying methods. Experimental studies published so far have shown the validity of using microwaves for drying classic moulding sands with bentonite. However, these studies lack data on the effect of moisture or bentonite content in moulding sand on the real component ε' or imaginary component ε'' of the relative complex electrical permittivity. The presented results may become in the future the basis for the evaluation of the composition of moulding sands, taking into account the phenomena occurring under the influence of electromagnetic field, which directly translates into the quality of the castings made and may constitute an attempt to develop a mathematical model of electric properties of moulding sands.
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Abstract

It was found that the addition of carbon fibers (CFs) does not affect the crosslinking process in the microwave radiation (800 W, 2.45 GHz) of the BioCo2 binder, which is a water solution of poly(acrylic acid) and dextrin (PAA/D). It has influence on BioCo2 thermal properties. The CFs addition improves the thermostability of a binder and leads to the reduction of gas products quantity generated in the temperature range of 300-1100°C (TG-DTG, Py-GC/MS). Moreover, it causes the emission of harmful decomposition products such as benzene, toluene, xylene and styrene to be registered in a higher temperatures (above 700°C). BioCo2 binder without CFs addition is characterized by the emission of these substances in the lower temperature range. This indicates the positive effect of carbon fibers presence on the amount of released harmful products. The selected technological tests (permeability, friability, bending strength, tensile strength) have shown that the moulding sand with the 0.3 parts by weight carbon fibers addition displays the worst properties. The addition of 0.1 parts by weight of CFs is sufficient to obtain a beneficial effect on the analyzed moulding sands properties. The reduction of harmful substances at the higher temperatures can also be observed.
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Abstract

The paper presents results of preliminary examinations on possibility of determining binder content in traditional moulding sands with the microwave method. The presented measurements were carried-out using a special stand, the so-called slot line. Binder content in thesandmix was determined by measurements of absorption damping Ad and insertion losses IL of electromagnetic wave. One of main advantages of the suggested new method of binder content measurement is short measuring time.
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Abstract

The effects of silica additive (Poraver) on selected properties of BioCo3 binder in form of an aqueous poly(sodium acrylate) and dextrin (PAANa/D) binder were determined. Based on the results of the thermoanalytical studies (TG-DTG, FTIR, Py-GC/MS), it was found that the silica additive results in the increase of the thermostability of the BioCo3 binder and its contribution does not affect the increase in the level of emissions of organic destruction products. Compounds from group of aromatic hydrocarbons are only generated in the third set temperature range (420-838°C). The addition of silicate into the moulding sand with BioCo3 causes also the formation of a hydrogen bonds network with its share in the microwave radiation field and they are mainly responsible for maintaining the cross-linked structures in the mineral matrix system. As a consequence, the microwave curing process in the presence of Poraver leads to improved strength properties of the moulding sand (���� �� ). The addition of Poraver's silica to moulding sand did not alter the permeability of the moulding sand samples, and consequently reduced their friability. Microstructure investigations (SEM) of microwave-cured samples have confirmed that heterogeneous sand grains are bonded to one another through a binder film (bridges).
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Abstract

A proper management of sand grains of moulding sands requires knowing basic properties of the spent matrix after casting knocking out. This information is essential from the point of view of the proper performing the matrix recycling process and preparing moulding sands with reclaimed materials. The most important parameter informing on the matrix quality – in case of moulding sands with organic binders after casting knocking out – is their ignition loss. The methodology of estimating ignition loss of spent moulding sands with organic binder– after casting knocking out - developed in AGH, is presented in the paper. This method applies the simulation MAGMA software, allowing to determine this moulding sand parameter already at the stage of the production preparation.
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Abstract

The production of thin-walled castings with wall thickness in the range of 1.5 to 3 mm and below requires the development of insulation moulding sands and/or core materials. The test has been taken to develop these kind of materials. The study included a description of their thermophysical properties. Authors described problems related to the heat flow in the casting-mould system, i.e. mathematically described the main dependence of heat give-up during crystallization of the casting. The influence of the content of polyglicol on the thermophysical properties of the mould with gypsum and cement binder was examined. Using the ATD method determined were the increments ΔT1 and ΔT2 describing the temperature changes in the mould during crystallization of hypoeutectic alloy of AlSi6 and the temperature difference between casting material and mould during the crystallization. In the considered range of technological parameters a description of the heat flow kinetics was given.
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of an investigation of the thermal deformation of moulding sands with an inorganic (geopolymer) binder with a relaxation additive, whose main task is to reduce the final (residual) strength and improves knocking-out properties of moulding sand. The moulding sand without a relaxation additive was the reference point. The research was carried out using the hot-distortion method (DMA apparatus from Multiserw-Morek). The results were combined with linear deformation studies with determination of the linear expansion factor (Netzsch DIL 402C dilatometer). The study showed that the introduction of relaxation additive has a positive effect on the thermal stability of moulding sand by limiting the measured deformation value, in relation to the moulding sand without additive. In addition, a relaxation additive slightly changes the course of the dilatometric curve. Change in the linear dimension of the moulding sand sample with the relaxation additive differs by only 0.05%, in comparison to the moulding sand without additive.
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Abstract

Drops of molten cast iron were placed on moulding sand substrates. The composition of the forming gaseous atmosphere was examined. It was found that as a result of the cast iron contact with water vapour released from the sand, a significant amount of hydrogen was evolved. In all the examined moulding sands, including sands without carbon, a large amount of CO was formed. The source of carbon monoxide was carbon present in cast iron. In the case of bentonite moulding sand with seacoal and sand bonded with furan resin, in the composition of the gases, the trace amounts of hydrocarbons, i.e. benzene, toluene, styrene and naphthalene (BTX), appeared. As the formed studies indicate much higher content of BTX at lower temperature it was concluded that the hydrocarbons are unstable in contact with molten iron
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Abstract

Gas atmosphere at the sand mould/cast alloy interface determines the quality of the casting obtained. Therefore the aim of this study was to measure and evaluate the gas forming tendency of selected moulding sands with alkyd resins. During direct and indirect gas measurements, the kinetics of gas evolution was recorded as a function of the temperature of the sand mixture undergoing the process of thermal destruction. The content of hydrogen and oxygen was continuously monitored to establish the type of the atmosphere created by the evolved gases (oxidizing/reducing). The existing research methodology [1, 7, 8] has been extended to include pressure-assisted technique of indirect measurement of the gas evolution rate. For this part of the studies, a new concept of the measurement was designed and tested. This article presents the results of measurements and compares gas emissions from two sand mixtures containing alkyd resins known under the trade name SL and SL2002, in which the polymerization process is initiated with isocyanate. Studies of the gas forming tendency were carried out by three methods on three test stands to record the gas evolution kinetics and evaluate the risk of gas formation in a moulding or core sand. Proprietary methods for indirect evaluation of the gas forming tendency have demonstrated a number of beneficial aspects, mainly due to the ability to record the quantity and composition of the evolved gases in real time and under stable and reproducible measurement conditions. Direct measurement of gas evolution rate from the tested sands during cast iron pouring process enables a comparison of the results with the results obtained by indirect methods.
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Abstract

The paper presents the technology and organization of the artistic cast production. On the basis of the actual cast production system, the manufacturing process was shown, in particular sand–piece moulding, which is a very important process and a time-consuming part of the entire manufacture of the casts. The current state of the production process as well as the organization of the work and production technology were analysed with the use of methods and techniques of production improvement, the Lean Manufacturing concept and computer systems. The results of the analysis and studies were shown with use of schemes and graphs of the layout of the production resources, a flow chart of the production process, value stream mapping, and a costs table for the production and modernization of the moulding stage. The work has shown that there are possibilities to improve the artistic cast production system. This improvement leads to increased productivity, lower production costs of artistic casts and increased competitiveness of the foundry.
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