Magnetic properties of silicon iron electrical steel are determined by using standardized measurement setups and distinct excitation parameters. Characteristic values for magnetic loss and magnetization are used to select the most appropriate material for its application. This approach is not sufficient, because of the complex material behavior inside electrical machines, which can result in possible discrepancies between estimated and actual machine behavior. The materials’ anisotropy can be one of the problems why simulation and measurement are not in good accordance.With the help of a rotational single sheet tester, the magnetic material can be tested under application relevant field distribution. Thereby, additional effects of hysteresis and anisotropy can be characterized for detailed modelling and simulation.
The paper presents the development procedures for both virtual 3D-CAD and material models of fractured segments of human spine formulated with the use of computer tomography (CT) and rapid prototyping (RP) technique. The research is a part of the project within the framework of which a database is developed, comprising both 3D-CAD and material models of segments of thoracic-lumbar spine in which one vertebrae is subjected to compressive fracture for a selected type of clinical cases. The project is devoted to relocation and stabilisation procedures of fractured vertebrae made with the use of ligamentotaxis method. The paper presents models developed for five patients and, for comparison purposes, one for a normal spine. The RP material models have been built basing on the corresponding 3D-CAD ones with the use of fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. 3D imaging of spine segments in terms of 3D-CAD and material models allows for the analysis of bone structures, classification of clinical cases and provides the surgeons with the data helpful in choosing the proper way of treatment. The application of the developed models to numerical and experimental simulations of relocation procedure of fractured vertebra is planned.
The aim of this paper is analysis of the possibility of determining the internal structure of the fibrous composite material by estimating its thermal diffusivity. A thermal diffusivity of the composite material was determined by applying inverse heat conduction method and measurement data. The idea of the proposed method depends on measuring the timedependent temperature distribution at selected points of the sample and identification of the thermal diffusivity by solving a transient inverse heat conduction problem. The investigated system which was used for the identification of thermal parameters consists of two cylindrical samples, in which transient temperature field is forced by the electric heater located between them. The temperature response of the system is measured in the chosen point of sample. One dimensional discrete mathematical model of the transient heat conduction within the investigated sample has been formulated based on the control volume method. The optimal dynamic filtration method as solution of the inverse problem has been applied to identify unknown diffusivity of multi-layered fibrous composite material. Next using this thermal diffusivity of the composite material its internal structure was determined. The chosen results have been presented in the paper.
The paper discusses the influence of the initial parameters on the strength parameters of S235JR steel at low stress triaxiality. The analysis was performed using the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needlem (GTN) material model, which takes into consideration the material structure. The initial material porosity was defined as the void volume fraction f₀. The fully dense material without pores was assumed and the typical and maximum values of porosity were considered for S235JR steel in order to analyse the porosity effect. The strength analysis of S235JR steel was performed basing on the force-elongation curves obtained experimentally and during numerical simulations. Taking into consideration the results obtained, the average values of the initial void volume fraction f₀ = 0.001 for S235JR steel is recommended to use in a common engineering calculations for elements operating at low stress triaxiality. In order to obtain more conservative results, the maximum values of f₀ = 0.0024 may be used.
The effect of the initial porosity on the material response under multi-axial stress state for S235JR steel using the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) material model was examined. Three levels of initial porosity, defined by the void volume fraction f₀, were considered: zero porosity for fully dense material without pores, average and maximum porosity according to the metallurgical requirements for S235JR steel. The effect of the initial porosity on the material response was noticed for tensile elements under multi-axial stress state defined by high stress triaxiality σₘ/σe = 1.345. This effect was especially noticeable at the range of the material failure. In terms of the load-bearing capacity of the elements, the conservative results were obtained when maximum value of f₀ = 0.0024 was used for S235JR steel under multi-axial stress state, and this value is recommended to use in the calculations in order to preserve the highest safety level of the structure. In usual engineering calculations, the average porosity defined by f₀ = 0.001 may be applied for S235JR.
A contactless energy transmission system is essential to supply onboard systems of electromagnetically levitated vehicles without physical contact to the guide rail. One of the possibilities to realise a contactless power supply (CPS) is by integrating the primary actuator into the guide rail of an electromagnetic guiding system (MGS). The secondary actuator is mounted on the elevator car. During the energy transmission, load dependent non-linear losses occur in the guide rail. The additional losses, which are caused by the leakage flux penetrating into the guide rail, cannot be modelled using the classical approach of iron losses in the equivalent circuit of a transformer, which is a constant parallel resistance to the mutual inductance. This paper introduces an approach for modelling the load dependent non-linear losses occurring in the guide rail using additional variable discrete circuit elements.