Revitalization programme and spatial and strategic management, Revitalization programme is the set of integrated activities in favour of a local community, space and economy, which are territorially concentrated and performed by revitalization stakeholdres. These activities should be based on revitalizing strategic and spatial management strongly oriented to improvement of life and living conditions of a local community. The aim of the article is to explain the essence of revitalization programme as a scenario of spatial and strategic activities of the borough authorities. The authors proves that spatial management and strategic management are the tools that enable them to conduct the revitalization process. In the study there is a passage devoted to theoretical and operational meaning of the subject issue. Also the example collected from The Local Revitalization Programme of Krobia Borough, which was elaborated in 2017, has been presented.
In recent years, the outsourcing of a variety of different activities has been more commonly observed in the coal mining industry. This is connected with employing workers by external companies. These practices are not necessarily perceived as good ones by mines’ employees because they may influence their remuneration directly or indirectly. Firstly, as external employees treat work in mining company as a source of a quick income. Therefore, external companies often calculate their employees compensation not based on working time (i.e. hours) but on the basis of a specific, accomplished task. Such employment is called piecework, whereas the workers employed in this kind of system are called output workers/piece workers. Therefore, to receive higher wages in these companies, employees carry out their tasks faster and more efficiently. This, in turn, can affect the standards of workers employed by the mining company. In addition, outsourced workers are often retired miners, so the costs incurred by employers are significantly lower. In addition, in order to not to lose the retirement benefit, they work for a much lower rate. On the other hand, outsourced work can be done in a hurry (on a piece rate), which is not conducive to compliance with safety regulations, therefore mine employees may feel unsafe. This article aims to present how mine employees assess outsourcing underground works. In order to achieve this aim, a survey was carried out among employees of one of the coal mine companies in Silesia. Participants of the survey were randomly chosen among underground miners employed at one mine company. The survey was anonymous which obviously might have influenced respondents’ honesty in answering. The survey was carried out in several mines of the chosen company. In some of them the survey was carried out online and in the remaining ones it was filled out on paper. Analyzing the survey results allowed for a better understanding of the reasons of the disapproval of outsourcing underground works. This, in turn, may be used for better human resources management including, in particular, planning an incentive based pay system.
The paper concentrates on the possibilities of checking the extent to which cities meet the smart city concept. The presented concept concentrates on one of the main smart cities characteristic: smart environment. This paper is a result of joint work of specialist from two diff erent areas: management and environmental protection. The interdisciplinary character of the paper is characteristic for smart cities.
Parental participation in co-management of state school becomes a key issue for democratization of public life in poland and for the quality and effectiveness of civic education of the young. The system of education needs social control, first of all of those whose children are subjected to school duty. “Such will the Republics of poland be as their youth is educated” is the thesis forming the foundations of the school system in the 3rd Republic of Poland. In compliance with the postulates and ethics of Solidarity, the system was supposed to be self-governing. What is analyzed in this study is the relation between politics and school education in the normative-empirical dimension. The (so far unpublished) research results of the author's own studies on democratization of state education are popularized here. This is done, after the dispute on some studies diagnosing the nationwide lack of socialization, in order to indicate subsequent aspects of fiction and appearances of the central authority, the rule of safe position employment, common paralysis of parental care, as well as natural expectations and aspirations which should be fulfilled by the subjects running state schools.
In the process of determining the content of impurities, including fossil fuels, crude oil, coke, pitch, plastics, glass, slag, rust, metals, and rock dust, in charcoal and wood briquettes via microscopic examination, the question of the use of ashes from the combustion of grill fuels (taking the scale of the new national sport into account, commonly referred to as „weekend grilling”) was raised. Another reason for addressing this issue was the question regarding the use of organic additives to acidified soil (mineral) fertilizers submitted by one of the clients of the bituminous coal and reservoir rocks analysis laboratory. In addition, the manufacturer of gardening soil has also expressed an interest in an unconventional deacidifying agent; the introduction of a new product with a unique ingredient is considered as a chance to stand out from the competition. A review of the literature shows that attempts to use ashes obtained from the biomass combustion in power boilers have been made. However, due to the biomass composition and additives and pollutants used in biomass for energy purposes, the production of such mixtures has been dropped. Based on the data from numerous samples of grill fuel, which meet the requirements regarding the content of impurities set out in the PN-EN 1860-2 standard, the question of the possible use of ash obtained from charcoal and wood briquette grilling as a component for use in the production of acidified soil (mineral) fertilizers was discussed. The article will present the amount of material obtained based on the statistical sales of barbecue fuels based on the experimentally calculated ash mass resulting from the combustion of 1 kg of starting material. In addition, a logistic proposal for obtaining ash from individual grill users will be developed. On the day of the submission of the present work, the results of the chemical analysis of charcoal and wood briquettes subjected to the gasification process have not yet been obtained. However, based on the microscopic analysis, it can be concluded that the content of impurities in the examined samples is highly unlikely to prevent the use of the mentioned ashes in agriculture.
The paper presents the author’s reflection regarding the recent transformations of the city of Krakow. The study is focused on the changes that are novelties or distinctive to the city. The conclusions indicate activities that should be treated by city authorities as challenges for the public management of the metropolitan scale.
An accurate use of the ability to steer computer efficiency is essential from the database point of view. Effective resource allocation is dependent on the performance indicators gathered from running systems. There must be an appropriate balance between accurate measurements, performance indicators and speed of the reallocation algorithms of the computing resources. The extended measurement of efficiency which the authors propose for applications is: the average number of queries within a time unit for particular groups of users. This paper presents an analysis of using the Workload Manager utility in the AIX 5L operating system to improve the efficiency of applications in the MySQL database environment, and an analysis of methods which allows the use of Workload Manager for steering efficiency dynamically.
The main issues in hunting management in Belarus are environmental protection, social-cultural, and economic problems. The total area of hunting grounds in the area is approx. 16.6 million hectares, including approx. 7.4 million hectares of forestlands, 8.2 million hectares of farmlands, and approx. 1 million hectares of wetlands. The territory of Belarus is characterized by lowland terrain features and a large number and area of stagnant and flowing waters. Protected areas (parks, reserves) account for 8.7% of the total area of the country. The hunting management is implemented in 250 legal entities. The main user of hunting grounds is the Belarusian Associa-tion of Hunters and Fishermen managing an area of ca. 10 million hectares. Hunting management is implemented based on national legislation of 2005. In 2015, the population of the moose was 32 thousand, deer – 15.2 thousand, roe deer – 74.6 thousand, beaver –58.3 thousand, capercaillie – 8.5 thousand, black grouse – 37.3 thousand. Over the last 10 years, the population of moose has doubled and the population of deer and roe deer has increased 2.5-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively. In relation to the habitat potential and breeding recommendations, the current populations of game species (moose, deer, and roe der) do not exceed 70% of the expected number. There are wild boars, but their numbers have been substantially reduced from 80 thousand to 2–3 thousand due to the epizootic threat (ASF). The hunting size is limited with reference to the number of individual species and the abundance dynamics. The level of exploitation of Cervidae is 10–13% of the total abundance, beavers – ca. 15%, and capercaillie and black grouse – 8–10%. Wolves are a hunting species and their population size over the last 10 years increased from 1000 to 1600 individuals, and the culling size increased from 700 to 1400.
The article presents a comparative analysis of various classifi cations of both sciences’ and management sciences’ paradigms in terms of their pragmatism and adequacy regarding organization research. Furthermore, the aim of the article is also to justify the thesis about the high usefulness of research model proposed by Keneth D. Strang. Strang’s model, based on the concept of researcher’s socio-cultural philosophy, allows on the one hand to overcome the theoretical incommensurability and on the other hand makes it possible for representatives of various paradigms to cooperate with each other. The article contains also refl ections on the paradigm as a key factor affecting both the development of management sciences and the practice of management. The choice of a specifi c paradigm, i.e. research ideology, has a decisive impact on the results of research, as well as the generalization of practice. The paradigm defi nes the research strategy, selection of research methods and inference rules. Furthermore, it infl uences the education process, and thus has an impact on shaping the worldview of scientists, entrepreneurs as well as managers.
The article deals with the subject of an important component of energy management, which is the performance of energy efficiency audits in companies. Using the case study analysis, the role of the energy audit was analyzed in the context of improvement of energy efficiency in selected production companies. The essence of legal requirements following from the implementation of the amended Energy Efficiency Act was presented. Specifically, problems and challenges, which refer to the method of implementation of the audit obligation in economic practice, were discussed. Furthermore, the issue of quality and usefulness (in the decision-making process) of prepared reports was raised. It was found that there were indications to claim that the obligatory energy audit of companies is not an instrument for the improvement of energy efficiency, which is always used optimally. The fault in this situation is partly attributable to the state, audit bodies and the company management. In this case, not only is the ineffective communication an issue here, but also the insufficient level of knowledge regarding energy management, as well as haste. The amendment of the Energy Efficiency Act (within just one year) imposed the necessity to conduct an energy audit on a specific group of companies. In principle, because all the entities, to which the obligation referred, had to take actions almost at the same time, numerous issues appeared. Some managers learned about the obligation to conduct the audit from companies who themselves had come out with a proposal to carry it out. This proves the lack of the proper information flow between the government administration authorities and the companies. Again, it turned out that practitioners did not keep pace with the implementation of actions, which were a consequence of numerous (and not always well thought-out) changes in the law. Haste in the fulfillment of the statutory obligation affected a high price spread of the bids sent during tenders, related to the performance of an energy audit. Bureaucratic regulations regarding tenders became another obstacle in the correct performance of the tasks. The entrepreneurs themselves, without clear guidelines on what to expect after the performed energy audit and what a report should look like, on many occasions, selected the “cheapest” bid – not always thinking too much about the qualitative consequences of such a decision. Some certifying bodies – taking advantage of an opportunity and the satisfactory combination of circumstances – offered unprofessional audit services of questionable quality. In the presented conditions, it is difficult to expect real, systemic and desirable results (economically, ecologically and socially) with regards to the energy efficiency both in the micro-, meso- and macr-economic scale. It is worth considering changes in the Energy Efficiency Act and spread the obligation to perform audits over different years according to clearly defined (in cooperation with business) criteria. If relevant actions are not taken, the situation of a temporary Eldorado on the market of energy audits will repeat in 4 years. Again, the consequence may be the poor quality and questionable usefulness of reports from energy audits of companies both at the business level and the ecological-political level. It is necessary to counteract all forms of unfair competition to interdisciplinary and specialist bodies which take actions to improve the energy efficiency of organisations. The creation of appropriate business conditions will have a positive impact on the improvement of energy efficiency. In this context, it is necessary to take actions, which enable the optimization of both the process of the implementation of obligatory legal regulations and voluntary (industry) norms and standards.
The concept of endogenous development assumes the use of specifi c resources of the region, difficult to copy, to its development, and even to gain a competitive advantage in a wider dimension. This concept has been used in the provisions of the Regional Innovation Strategy of the Podkarpackie Voivodeship for 2014-2020 for smart specialization (RIS3), especially in relation to leading smart specialization the quality of life, in the areas of: production and processing of ecological, regional and traditional food; renewable energy and distributed energy; agrotourism and ecotourism. It was targeted at the development of the entire region, not only the leading urban centers. The special role of the food economy lies in the need to guarantee food security and food sovereignty in the region. This issue is of strategic importance.
For a long time creativity, innovativeness and entrepreneurship have been at the heart of studies on economic growth of regions and cities. In the paper the three notions are scrutinised together to propose conceptual approach to establishing research and development pathways, based upon three-stage identification of: research problems, project patterns and relational mechanisms. The paper is concluded with a 63 Box – the approach helping to navigate throughout project preparation phase.
The article includes analysis of the constructing of the concept of the child and childhood within neoliberal culture set against the background of mechanisms for exercising power and constructing subjectivity. In particular, in conducting these areas such phenomena as: population policy, investing in childhood, management of childhood are involved. Additionally, the theoretical perspective lying at the basis of the analysis refers to the concept of “governmentality” in light of Michel Foucault and his ideas.
The aim of this article is to defi ning problems occurring in the spatial management system, including those independent of subsequent legislative changes. The process of adopting decisions to be viable and socially equitable and execute the requirements of spatial order and sunstainable development requires fundamental changes. The study draws a conclusion – important in the context of subsequent research activities – that the varied application of development decisions in diff erent municipalities is also the result of not preparing a large part of the representatives of municipalities for specifi c spatial activities.
The article presents research on the relationship between mining and used resources on the example of Gliśno gravel pit. As regards to resources, the following issues were analyzed: employees’ working time, time of running machines, fuel consumption and electricity consumption. The aim of the publication is to examine the dependencies that exist between the analyzed variables. KPI’s (Key Performance Indicators) were calculated for individual resources. The analysis presented in the publication contains data from 2008-2014.
The article aims at determining the place and role of environmental issues in spatial management in relation to scientific achievements of Professor Zbyszko Chojnicki. A few words about the professor’s approach to the issue of using the natural environment in spatial management provide a starting point for the ongoing discussion. Next, attention is paid to the place of environmental issues in the interactive model and in the conception of the territorial social system by Professor Chojnicki. This concerns first of all the distinction and description of these elements of the natural environment and environmental relations which are identified in these systemic aspects. In the following part of the article, the analysis of environmental issues is carried out as the subject of interest of spatial management in the context of scientific achievements of Professor Chojnicki in this field. The paper concludes with a short presentation of studies inspired by works of Professor Chojnicki on sustainable development of cities.
The paradox of enterprise management is the company must continually change in a dynamic and difficult-to-predict environment in order to achieve business continuity and profitability goals. The relatively low efficiency and awareness of the need for change at network organizations means the problems connecting with changes implementation, identification of conditions limiting their realizations and importance of final results are still significant. This article described this issue by the diagnosis of current state of the change management in various types of network organizations and showing how this state can be improved in the future. Assuming the organization will strive for conscious and organized change management.
The article presents relationship between history and management. Methodological inspirations between these disciplines have been shown and also the achievements carried out within the history of business and organizational theory have been described. The author has characterized the “historical turn” in organizational researches in the 1990s of XX century. In the subsequent part of the article, three methodological approaches have been characterized, namely: narrative research and storytelling, business history, and historical perspective in organizational research. The achievements of Polish researchers in the distinguished areas of research were taken into account. At the end, barriers to greater interest of using the historical perspective in the research of organizations, conducted by Polish researchers, have been presented. They are as follows: small share of historical knowledge in the education of management adepts, domination of a historical paradigms in organization and management research, the lack of continuity in the development of Polish organizations and scientific reflection on organizations and management in the 20th century and low historical awareness of Polish entrepreneurs and managers.
Though current conservation policy in Poland refl ects world trends and approaches to action, compliance with all of its assumptions would entail the Polish authorities remodelling both the system and the methods by which natural resources are managed. On the one hand this requires a change of approach to the management of natural resources from the traditional, purely nature-related one, to a more modern inter-disciplinary one that takes in social and economic conditioning. On the other hand, a system need to be put in place to allow these ideas to be introduced in practice. The work described here deals with the participation of different stakeholder groups in nature management, with this regarded as a method of increasing the latter’s effi ciency. The many examples (of good practice) presented by the author well illustrate the wisdom of the approach, which often seems to achieve success where it is attempted.
The new legislative provisions, regulating the trade in solid fuels in our country, draw attention to the need to develop and improve methods and methods of managing hard coal sludge. The aim of the work was to show whether filtration parameters (mainly the permeability coefficient) of hard coal sludge are sufficient for construction of insulating layers in landfills at the stage of their closing and what is the demand for material in the case of such a procedure. The analysis was carried out for landfills for municipal waste in the Opolskie, Śląskie and Małopolskie provinces. For hard coal sludge, the permeability coefficient values are in the range of 10–8–10–11 m/s, with the average value of 3.16 × 10–9 m/s. It can be concluded that this material generally meets the criteria of tightness for horizontal and often vertical flows. When compaction, increasing load or mixing with fly ash from hard coal combustion and clays, the achieved permeability coefficient often lowers its values. Based on the analysis, it can be assumed that hard coal sludge can be used to build mineral insulating barriers. At the end of 2016, 50 municipal landfills were open in the Opolskie, Śląskie and Małopolskie Provinces. Only 36 of them have obtained the status of a regional installation, close to 1/3 of the municipal landfill are within the Major Groundwater Basin (MGB) range. The remaining storage sites will be designated for closure. Assuming the necessity to close all currently active municipal waste landfills, the demand for hard coal sludge amounts to a total of 1,779,000 m3 which, given the assumptions, gives a mass of 2,704,080 Mg. The total amount of hard coal sludge production is very high in Poland. Only two basic mining groups annually produce a total of about 1,500,000 Mg of coal sludge. The construction of insulating layers in landfills of inert, hazardous and non-hazardous and inert wastes is an interesting solution. Such an application is prospective, but it will not solve the problem related to the production and management of this waste material as a whole. It is important to look for further solutions.
The article concerns issues related to need of the introduction of protection prognostic areas, prospective resources pursuant to the new regulations of integrated development and space management in Poland. The article discuss the issues of actual and crucial documents and it also contains some critic and detailed analysis of the documents such as: the Responsible Development Strategy (SOR), Integrated National Development Strategy (ZSRK), Poland Integrated Development Strategy (SZRP). Author also analyzes whether the level of the implementation with the provisions motioned above is compliant with work in the committees reviewing issues in accordance with the work of the inter-ministerial teams for the updating and monitoring the strategy of development, set up at the Coordination Committee for Development Policy. The article indicates, among others, the increase of the legislative risk for the geological-mining or energy industry, the commodity sector. The risk may affect the crucial matters for the industry (functional areas, ICPs, the basis of their recognition in planning documents – taken into consideration as an element in the integrated management system of development). After all the analysis of the current provision, the article contains the summary with the main conclusions.
Despite significant changes of a political, legal and economic nature, despite clearly expressed intentions, the natural environment of most areas of Europe is further degraded. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt effective solutions, and one of the possibilities of determining the directions of support is the pro-ecological nature of the regional innovation strategy, which will allow transfer of much larger funds to support eco-innovation. The work is a case study. The aim of the research presented in this work is to show the relationship between the provisions of the Regional Innovation Strategy of the Podkarpackie Voivodeship for 2014-2020 for intelligent specialization (RIS3), and the assumptions of the five-helix concept, and the justifi cation for its use in future, in the form of a developed regional eco-innovation strategy.
The aim of the article is to present the issue of risk and related management methods, with a particular emphasis on the conditions of investment in energy infrastructure. The work consists of two main parts; the first one is the theoretical analysis of the issue, while the second discusses the application of analysis methods on the example of the investment in an agricultural biogas plant. The article presents the definitions related to the investment risk and its management, with a particular emphasis on the distinction between the risk and uncertainty. In addition, the main risk groups of the energy sector were subjected to an analysis. Then, the basic systematics and the division into particular risk groups were presented and the impact of the diversification of investments in the portfolio on the general level of risk was determined. The sources of uncertainty were discussed with particular attention to the categories of energy investments. The next part of the article presents risk mitigation methods that are part of the integrated risk management process and describes the basic methods supporting the quantification of the risk level and its effects – including the Monte Carlo (MC), Value at risk (VaR), and other methods. Finally, the paper presents the possible application of the methods presented in the theoretical part. The investment in agricultural biogas plant, due to the predictable operation accompanied by an extremely complicated and long-term investment process, was the subject of the analysis. An example of “large drawing analysis” was presented, followed by a Monte Carlo simulation and a VaR value determination. The presented study allows for determining the risk in the case of deviation of financial flows from the assumed values in particular periods and helps in determining the effects of such deviations. The conducted analysis indicates a low investment risk and suggests the ease of similar calculations for other investments.
Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element present in the lithosphere, and it constitutes one of the major inorganic nutrient elements of many plants. Although Si is a nonessential nutrient element, its beneficial role in stimulating the growth and development of many plant species has been generally recognized. Silicon is known to effectively reduce disease severity in many plant pathosystems. The key mechanisms of Si-mediated increased plant disease resistance involve improving mechanical properties of cell walls, activating multiple signaling pathways leading to the expression of defense responsive genes and producing antimicrobial compounds. This article highlights the importance and applicability of Si fertilizers in integrated disease management for crops.