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Abstract

Finite fossil fuel resources, as well as the instability of renewable energy production, make the sustainable management of energy production and consumption some of the key challenges of the 21st century. It also involves threats to the state of the natural environment, among others due to the negative impact of energy on the climate. In such a situation, one of the methods of improving the efficiency of energy management – both on the micro (dispersed energy) and macro (power system) scale, may be innovative technological solutions that enable energy storage. Their effective implementation will allow it to be collected during periods of overproduction and to be used in situations of scarcity. These challenges cannot be overestimated - modern science has a challenge to solve various types of problems related to storage, including the technology used or the control/ /management of energy storage. Heat storage technologies, on which research works are carried out regarding both storage based on a medium such as water, as well as storage using thermochemical transformations or phase-change materials. They give a wide range of applications and improve the efficiency of energy systems on both the macro and micro scale. Of course, the technological properties and economic parameters have an impact on the application of the chosen technology. The article presents a comparison of storage parameters or heat storage methods based on different materials with specification of their work parameters or operating costs.
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Abstract

Increasing the share of energy production from renewable sources (RES) plays a key role in the sustainable and more competitive development of the energy sector. Among the renewable energy sources, the greatest increase can be observed in the case of solar and wind power generation. It should be noted that RES are an increasingly important elements of the power systems and that their share in energy production will continue to rise. On the other hand the development of variable generation sources (wind and solar energy) poses a serious challenge for power systems as operators of unconventional power plants are unable to provide information about the forecasted production level and the energy generated in a given period is sometimes higher than the demand for energy in all of the power systems. Therefore, with the development of RES, a considerable amount of the generated energy is wasted. The solution is energy storage, which makes it possible to improve the management of power systems. The objective of this article is to present the concept of electricity storage in the form of the chemical energy of hydrogen (Power to Gas) in order to improve the functioning of the power system in Poland. The expected growth in the installed capacity of wind power plants will result in more periods in which excess energy will be produced. In order to avoid wasting large amounts of energy, the introduction of storage systems is necessary. An analysis of the development of wind power plants demonstrates that the Power to Gas concept can be developed in Poland, as indicated by the estimated installed capacity and the potential amount of energy to be generated. In view of the above, the excess electricity will be available for storage in the form of chemical energy of hydrogen, which
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Abstract

W pracy przedstawiono koncepcję, model matematyczny oraz obliczenia symulacyjne dynamiki układu magazynowania energii elektrycznej wykorzystującego ciepło zgromadzone w rozgrzanym metalu, w metalurgicznym piecu do topienia aluminium. Przyjęto, iż do odzysku energii elektrycznej zastosowany będzie układ pracujący na zasadzie organicznego cykl Rankine’a (ORC). Analizie poddano również właściwości obiegu pośredniego pomiędzy układem magazynowania a odzysku. Przedstawiono przykładowy scenariusz ładowania przy uwzględnieniu rzeczywistej charakterystyki czasowej konwersji energii elektrycznej za pomocą farmy wiatrowej. Założono przy tym hipotetyczną charakterystykę zapotrzebowania na energię elektryczną przez użytkownika. Przedstawiono wyniki obliczeń numerycznych, z których wynika, że układ taki znakomicie nadaje się do stabilizacji zmiennej charakterystyki wytwarzania w odniesieniu do zapotrzebowania odbiorców na energię elektryczną oraz ciepło. Przedstawiono wyniki przebiegów czasowych ładowania pieca energią uzyskaną z farmy wiatrowej oraz rozładowania przez hipotetycznego użytkownika. Podano również charakterystyki zmienności ciepła akumulowanego w piecu, temperatury czynnika magazynującego, sprawności. W obliczeniach uwzględniono również wpływ oporu cieplnego izolacji na charakterystyki magazynowania energii. Zauważono, iż kluczowymi parametrami wpływającymi na sprawność układu są charakterystyka użytkowania układu (głównie czas oczekiwania na rozładowanie oraz ilość zmagazynowanej energii) oraz jakość izolacji termicznej pieca.
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Abstract

The article presents the current state of the CNG market used as an alternative fuel for car engines. Attention was paid to European Union directives requirements and the current state of the directives’ fulfillment. The economic aspect of CNG usage was analyzed and the approximate costs of driving 10,000 km on different fuels in the last four years were presented. The PtG process which uses electric energy (hydrogen production) and carbon dioxide captured from the flue gas for the production of synthetic methane were discussed. The scheme of the SNG plant with the indication of its most important components was presented, and attention was paid to the mutual complementation of PtG technologies with carbon dioxide capture technology. The benefits of synthetic methane production are presented and the use of compressed natural gas to power engines in vehicles has been described. First, the focus was on the single-fuel use of CNG in bus and truck engines, paying particular attention to the ecological aspect of the implemented solutions. It has been shown that the use of compressed natural gas will reduce almost 100% of the particulates emission from the combustion process. The advantages and disadvantages of the alternative fuel supply are given. Next, the aspect of dual-fuel use in diesel engines was analyzed on the example of a smaller engine. The degree of reduction of harmful compounds emission from the combustion process is shown. Finally, attention was paid to the possible scale effect, referring to the number of motor vehicles in Poland.
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