High distribution system power-losses are predominantly due to lack of investments in R&D for improving the efficiency of the system and improper planning during installation. Outcomes of this are un-designed extensions of the distributing power lines, the burden on the system components like transformers and overhead (OH) lines/conductors and deficient reactive power supply leading to drop in a system voltage. Distributed generation affects the line power flow and voltage levels on the system equipment. These impacts of distributed generation (DG) may be to improve system efficiency or reduce it depending on the operating environment/conditions of the distribution system and allocation of capacitors. For this purpose, allocating of distributed generation optimally for a given radial distribution system can be useful for the system outlining and improve efficiency. In this paper, a new method is used for optimally allocating the DG units in the radial distribution system to curtail distribution system losses and improve voltage profile. Also, the variation in active power load in the system is considered for effective utilization of DG units. To evidence the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out in MATLAB software on the IEEE-33 bus system and Vastare practical 116 bus system.
The paper presents an extensive review investigating the practical aspects related to the use of single- number ratings used in describing the sound insulation performance of partition wall panels and practical complications encountered in precise measurements in extensive frequency range from 50 Hz to 5 kHz. SWOT analysis of various single number ratings is described. A laboratory investigation on a double wall partition panel combination revealed the significant dependence of STC rating on transmission loss at 125 Hz attributed to 8 dB rule. An investigation conducted on devising alternative spectrums of aircraft noise, traffic noise, vehicular horn noise and elevated metro train noise as an extension to ISO 717-1 Ctr for ascertaining the sound insulation properties of materials exclusively towards these noise sources revealed that the single-number rating Rw + Ctr calculated using ISO 717-1 Ctr gives the minimum sound insulation, when compared with Rw + Cx calculated using the alternative spectrums of aircraft noise, traffic noise, etc., which means that material provides a higher sound insulation to the other noise sources. It is also observed that spectrum adaptation term Cx calculated using the spectrum of noise sources having high sound pressure levels in lower frequencies decreases as compared to ISO 717-1 Ctr owing to significant dependence of Ctr at lower frequencies.