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Number of results: 39
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Abstract

The aim of this study is to refl ect on two notions that are often used in contemporary research, relevant to cultural linguistics: linguistic vision of the world and linguistic image of the world. We start with expressing our conviction that it is not a question of two synonymic concepts nor do we believe that they are opposite notions. In our opinion, they are two ideas that refl ect the relationship between the language and culture of a speech community but at different levels and from a different perspective. In this study we will examine the research works that, in recent years, have used both notions in order to expose their advantages. In the fi rst part of our work we will discuss the background of the discipline and then provide the defi nitions of both notions and their uses most signifi cant uses. We will draw on the studies of researchers who study Slavic languages, Spanish and English.
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Abstract

A newly published monograph by Vladimir Cvetkovski (Cvetkovski 2017) has given rise to a short examination of some Turkish loanwords in Bitola Macedonian, partially in comparison with the classic treatment of the topic presented by Olivera Jašar-Nasteva a few years ago (Ja{ar-Nasteva 2001). Besides, some methodological remarks and, fi rst of all, a rule concerning treatment of sonorants in assimilation processes in Macedonian (see bilbil) are suggested in the study.
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Abstract

Which lexical typology does the Italian language have? A comparative study with French – This paper sets out to show the lexical and typological differences between the French and Italian languages. French is the only Romance language without morphology in words. Italian continues to build words while including morphology. This phenomenon can be explained by the diacronic process of deflexivity, which is more advanced in French. The consequence is that French words are more compact and unanalyzable. French is becoming a “neoisolating” language.
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Abstract

Based upon the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, according to which language influences thought, we may affirm how social stereotypes remain bound by stereotyped usages of language. Hence, speaking is never neutral as it is underpinned by a way of thinking, of communicating, of being. The sexist usage of language encapsulates a function of emphasis at the semantic level and an obscuring function in morphological terms. We thus question what sexism in language means in order to inquire as to how the ways we make use of language may influence our ways of thinking and, consequently, our ways of acting.
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Abstract

This article analyzes the common Slavic linguistic atlas maps (OLA). Assessing the preliminary results of the OLA project, the author focused her attention on the new linguistic geography data given in the Atlas, and the evolution of some units and Proto-Slavic dialect differentiation of Slavia.
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Abstract

This paper has two parts to it. The fi rst part is about the presence and possible impact of Hindi and Polish as foreign words in the contemporary English language. This is measured via the proposed tool of CRAC (Cumulative Average Relative Count). The research is done on the basis of the British National Corpus (2001, 2007) and Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (2004, 2009). The focus is laid on the overriding heuristic metaphor LANGUAGE LAWS are PHYSICAL LAWS, where laws of lexical assimilation are viewed as analogous to physical laws of gravity. The second part marks the transition from a theoretical-descriptive perspective into a more practical, intercultural dimension. It is about translation of foreign proper names from the viewpoint of legal (certifi ed) translation. This is a signifi cant issue as many foreign words are actually proper names in English. This part relates then to specifi c controversies and proposed solutions concerning translation of Polish and Hindi proper foreign names in view of the presence and absence of their diacritic forms in English. The framework for adoption of the argument are institutionally established standards of certifi ed translation practice in Poland.
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Abstract

The article discusses the relations between contrastive linguistics and applied phraseology. Applied phraseology, and particularly phraseodidactics and phraseotranslation, respond to the vast needs of the contemporary world in terms of effi cient didactics and successful translation of the broadly conceived phraseological structures. The author demonstrates how the disciplines in question may use the developments of contrastive linguistics in order to expand their own areas of interest.
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Abstract

This article offers a survey of Arabic consonantism, compared with other Semitic and Hamito-Semitic languages, mainly Berber. Particular attention has been given to the phenomenon of spirantization of stops and to the origin of «emphatic» phonemes.
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Abstract

The aim of the present paper is to discuss metaphorical constructions, based on figurative uses of words, in informal Polish in the field of computers and the Internet. The study is based on the author’s own corpus, compiled on the basis of short informal texts (entries, posts) written on 32 selected Internet forums. Altogether, the corpus consists of 1,541,449 words. The paper, as the title suggests, focuses on one metaphorical formula, i.e. COMPUTERS ARE BUILDINGS. The metaphors which can be subsumed under this heading belong to the most frequent in the corpus (alongside a different type, i.e. COMPUTERS ARE HUMANS). They are discussed within the cognitive framework, as introduced by Lakoff and Johnson (1980). Some attention will also be devoted to the possible infl uence of English upon Polish metaphorical constructions used in the area of computers and the Internet.
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Abstract

The present paper focuses on the changing interpretations of the English gerund. Since no method can accurately and uniformly account for the meanings of all instances of existing -ing forms, previous studies have offered approximate characterizations based on small samples. This study looks at the numbers of -ing derivations denoting institutionalized activities, on the assumption that these represent non-eventive readings. The derivations in question are arranged chronologically in terms of their time of coinage to compare changing productivity levels of this process relative to -ry derivations. This count shows that -ing suffi xations outnumber other nominalization processes and this trend has increased in the last two centuries.
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Abstract

A subject of the paper Substantive Declension in Slavic Linguistic Atlas is based on an extensive field research of the Dialects of all Slavic languages. The territory of the research is delimited by the international Slavistic project Slavic Linguistic Atlas the database of which is formed by answers to 3400 questions within 853 localities of the overall Slavic territory. However, not all the forms of all the substantive paradigms are presented, but only the selected representative phenomena testifying to the natural constitutive processes of the national languages in connection with the phonetic changes proving the specifi c character of the linguistic development under the infl uence of a genetically homogeneous or heterogeneous environment and testifying to linguistic changes as results of intercultural, interlingual and probably also inter-confessional infl uences. The final part of the publication is oriented upon the constitutive processes of substantive declination in the Slavic macro-areas (South-Slavic, West-Slavic, and East-Slavic – and within them also in the particular Slavic languages) from the point of view of “otherness” and “foreignness”, i.e. from the point of view of the original and non-original grammatical endings in the particular declension types. The genuine basis of the transgression from the original domestic elements to the new ones gets manifested not only within the adaptation processes of the lexical level, but its basis is hidden in the long-term stabilization processes, in systemic changes by which the inner structure of the language, the area of the distribution of changes, and their impact upon the typological substance of the language are modified. By its interpretative character, the paper The Interpretation of Substantive Declension in Slavic Languages aims at integrating the genetic, areal as well as typological aspects of the investigated domain.
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Abstract

The review is devoted to the monograph of the Slovak professor P. Žigo Evolution of Noun Declension in the Slavic Languages. The author appreciates the monograph and considers it as theoretical breakthrough in historical and areal linguistics, as it offers new methodology of the way we read and interpret the linguistic maps of Slavic Linguistic Atlas. The Monograph based on the unique materials of the Slavic Linguistic Atlas, free from previous atomicity and arbitrariness in linguistic research, largely clarifi es the complex picture of connections and relations of the Slavic languages, which have changed often in their long history.
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Abstract

The present paper investigates agreement patterns with plural controllers in Fezzani Arabic (southwestern Libya). During the last three decades, research has proved that the agreement system found in Classical Arabic is the result of a process of standardization, while agreement in the dialects feature the same type of variation observed in pre-Islamic poetry and the Qur’an. Nonhuman plural controllers, in particular, strictly require feminine singular agreement in Classical Arabic, while feminine singular alternates with feminine plural agreement in the pre-Islamic texts and the Qur’an. Most contemporary dialects exhibit a great range of variation in this field. Fezzani Arabic largely favors plural (syntactic) agreement with plural controllers. Syntactic agreement is systematic with human controllers and it represents the most frequent choice also with nonhuman ones. The main factor triggering feminine singular agreement is not humanness, bu t individuation. Within this conservative syntactic behavior, finally, masculine plural seems to be eroding feminine plural agreement with both feminine human and nonhuman controllers, for sociolinguistic reasons that still need to be investigated.
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Abstract

The papers of this series examine various domains of the Egyptian core lexicon in order to evidence to what degree the basic vocabulary is of clearly Semitic vs. African cognacy. The fourth part focuses on the Ancient Egyptian anatomical terminology of the back parts from the head to the upper torso.
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Abstract

The present paper offers a more macroscopic and system-oriented analysis of the tense-taxis-aspect-mood (TTAM) semantics of the Biblical Hebrew verbal system developed within the framework of grammaticalization-based maps and cognitive linguistics. By combining the maps (i.e. qualitative compositions of senses) and waves (i.e. qualitative-quantitative complexes of senses) into higher-level dynamic modules, i.e. currents, and by explaining the global system in terms of such currents, the study designs a possible way of expansion of the semantic maps’ model from a gram-oriented analysis to a more systemic perspective. Accordingly, higher level properties of the sub-modules of the Biblical Hebrew verbal system are postulated, the environments of grams are expanded from their immediate setting (the adjacent waves on the stream) to other, more distant, regions of the verbal organization, and a tentative dynamic model of the entire Biblical Hebrew verbal system is formulated.
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Abstract

The text is an overview of the first volume of the lexical atlas of the Russian folk dialects. It presents modern cartographic methods used in the volume and types of maps contained therein. In order to better present the volume, one exemplary map is analysed, indicating its advantages and drawbacks. In conclusion the richness of the Russian dialectal lexical material, which was precisely geographically located, is stressed. This is the biggest merit of the atlas.
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Abstract

This study discusses the cross-cultural re-conceptualization of the slogan ‘I’m lovin’ it’, popularized in Poland by a global fast-food restaurant chain, which occurs in the inter-linguistic transfer between English and Polish. The analytical framework for the study is provided by Cultural Linguistics and the Re-conceptualization and Approximation Theory. The analysis is based on proposals submitted by 45 translators asked to come up with a Polish equivalent of the slogan. The results indicate that because the semantic networks for the meaning of love do not overlap between English and Polish perfectly, attempts at the cross-cultural transfer of the slogan can be approached only as more or less accurate approximations of the original meaning constructed according to culture-specific norms, expectations, and attitudes.
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Abstract

The main object of this article is to present the history of the establishing legal regulations in Poland concerning additional place names and other official signs in the languages of national minorities. This process has been always very difficult, because as it teaches the experience of many European countries, it affects issues related the national identity, the role of the national language in the state and the tradition of recognizing linguistic diversity in a given country. In the article, I will try to show that the introduction of such regulations in Poland has been with the one hand an important, perhaps even historical, change in the functioning of the Polish society and administration which consisted of official admission of other languages into the public sphere thus violating the dominant tradition of Polish language dominance in the country. From the other hand, the presence of a minority place-names indicates a change in the way in which minority groups publicly present their ethnic identities. It takes place not only through maintaining national cultures and learning the mother tongue but also through increased visual presence in the public sphere.
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Abstract

Post-truth and parody in old and new media – This paper presents a description of a few issues of the satirical magazine Il Male, published in Italy in the second half of the 1970s. These special issues – somewhat parodies – copied the typographic format of the main Italian newspapers of that period and were filled with odd and invented news. In some respects these publications anticipate parody and falsification in the digital era. In particular, some Internet sites that play on the slight distinction between false and true reports, and make us reflect upon the reliability of the information, can be considered as heirs to this experiment.
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Abstract

This article first surveys the current, somewhat unproductive state of research into potential universals of translation. Then it considers in specific the “first translational response universal” (Malmkjær 2011), suggesting that it may be rooted in the cognitive mechanism of priming. Empirical evidence for this is next sought in the analysis of a set of 34 novice translations of the same short passage from Swedish into Polish, which are shown to exhibit the effects of priming to a considerable extent. Overall, the objective is to illustrate a possible way of investigating postulated translation universals: first identifying a cluster of cognitive mechanisms to motivate the universal, then determining the linguistic structures that are concrete manifestations of such mechanisms in languages meeting in translation. The proposed research procedure thus proceeds from a cognitive process to a detailed language structure, allowing for the examination of phenomena observed in the “third code” on the supra-cultural level.
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