In the 21th century we can observe a return to Marx, particularly in the circles of New Left. A critical approach to the legacy of Karl Marx implies a readiness to revise or even reject the false or no longer valid propositions of Marx in order to be able to confront his legacy with the current state of contemporary science. Some of his views have already been definitely rejected (particularly the theory of revolution and of the dictatorship of proletariat). But a part of his contribution remains valid: (1) the philosophy of praxis, i.e. a theory oriented toward a social change, and (2) the sociological theory that interprets politics in terms of class interests.
For many years, learning the competences to teach mathematics in early education at university has been associated with the ability to reproductively apply methodological guidelines. Currently, however, the need to not only understand the mathematical meanings given by teachers, but also students of the specialty, are seen to be important. This article attempts to engage in an interpretive line of thinking with regard to mathematics education, coming from the perspective of students learning to be early education teachers. Their understanding of the contexts for learning mathematical concepts, as well as their sensitivity to the processes of constructing mathematical knowledge by very young pupils, being a way of predicting what educational activities will be undertaken in the classroom in the future. This text is the result of qualitative analyses of written essays of early education students, where respondents had to make conceptualizations of their beliefs by justifying the selection of particular declarative statements. Students’ mathematical meanings were also uncovered in their strategies for solving mathematical problems for very young pupils. Moreover, the results of this analyses provides a context for reading the students’ understanding of mathematics learning processes.
Two formal types of models of living processes, especially evolutionary ones, may be distinguished: the well-known mathematical type and the less-known logical one. The latter applies the terms “class” or “set”; both the terms are understood either in a collective sense (in mereology) or in a distributive sense (in set theory). These formal terms may be used among others to such organic multiplicities as populations or species of organisms, and to organic constituents (molecules, cells, organs) of living organism. Collective concepts refer to objects existing in nature, whereas distributive concepts refer to the linguistic and research constructions of models of natural objects, developed to cognitively grasp natural regularities.
The author champions the belief that Karl Marx offered a theory of capitalism, and not a theory of socialism. This explains, she argues, why we cannot find a detailed and well-constructed conception of human society that will exist in the future. Marx continued, however, to draw prognostic conclusions from his diagnosis of the capitalist status quo, and his numerous manuscripts are replete with social predictions. They were different at different times, and as the capitalist system tended to change in his lifetime, so changed Marx’s expectations about the future course of events. One thing remained unchanged, however. He always proclaimed the coming of a classless community based on the principle that a free development of each is a necessary prerequisite of a free development of all.
Celem artykułu jest ustalenie podstawowego zbioru metodologiczno-logicznych zasad filozofii formalnej zgodnych z jej klasycznym, ontologicznym paradygmatem, oraz zastosowanie tych zasad w pewnej aksjomatycznej konstrukcji teorii czasu wypełnionego.
The efficient, stable and reliable operation of the blast furnace secures the proper quality of coke, which is one of the basic components of the blast furnace charge. In modern blast-furnace technology, when using substitute fuels, i.e. coal dust, the role of coke is extremely important. For this reason, the demands placed on its quality increase. Domestic coking plants have a limited base of Polish high quality coking coals at their disposal, therefore the full use of their coking properties is extremely important. The grain composition of the coal blend is one of the basic factors affecting the quality of the produced coke. This influence depends on the quantity and quality of coal components that make up the blend. In the conducted research, 21 coking coals, differing significantly in the degree of rank and origin (Polish and overseas coals), it was shown that the separated grain classes differ in properties, both coking properties and the degree of devolatalization during heating. In analyzing the obtained results, it was observed that the grain volume growth occurs essentially in the temperature range between the beginning and the maximum of fluidity. It has been shown that there is a linear correlation between the temperature corresponding to maximum fluidity and the temperature at which the maximum rate of evolution of volatiles enters. The presented phenomena accompany the emergence of coal expansion pressure during the coking process and they are its primary causes. The presented results can be an important guide for preparing the milling of coal for the coking process.
Pierre’a Bourdieu jedynie w znikomym stopniu korzysta ze źródeł biograﬁcznych, przez co obraz kultur ludowych (w tym obraz socjalizacji samego autora) pozostaje niepełny. Wykorzystanie źródeł autobiograﬁcznych pochodzących z różnych kultur i okresów historycznych umożliwia omówienie relatywnie niezmiennych wzorów kulturowych klasy ludowej. Artykuł porównuje dwa oparte na autobiograﬁcznych wspomnieniach obrazy wzorów kultury robotniczej (ludowej) pochodzące z klasycznej pracy Richarda Hoggarta na temat brytyjskiej klasy robotniczej w połowie XX wieku oraz portretu współczesnej klasy robotniczej w USA, który stworzył Alfred Lubrano. Porównanie tych prac pozwala wyodrębnić siedem grup wzorów kulturowych, związanych kolejno (1) ze wspólnotowym życiem skoncentrowanym wokół domu, (2) wartościami (pozornie paradoksalne współistnienie konserwatyzmu i tolerancji w klasie ludowej), (3) wykorzystywaniem ciała jako towaru, (4) przyjętymi sposobami komunikacji, (5) trzema rodzajami „praktycyzmu”, a także (6) gustem kulinarnym i (7) sposobami gospodarowania domowym budżetem. Materiał ten pozwala pokazać metodologiczne możliwości, jakie stwarza rozszerzenie perspektywy metodologicznej Pierre’a Bourdieu o podejście biograﬁczne.