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Abstract

In the 21th century we can observe a return to Marx, particularly in the circles of New Left. A critical approach to the legacy of Karl Marx implies a readiness to revise or even reject the false or no longer valid propositions of Marx in order to be able to confront his legacy with the current state of contemporary science. Some of his views have already been definitely rejected (particularly the theory of revolution and of the dictatorship of proletariat). But a part of his contribution remains valid: (1) the philosophy of praxis, i.e. a theory oriented toward a social change, and (2) the sociological theory that interprets politics in terms of class interests.
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Abstract

For many years, learning the competences to teach mathematics in early education at university has been associated with the ability to reproductively apply methodological guidelines. Currently, however, the need to not only understand the mathematical meanings given by teachers, but also students of the specialty, are seen to be important. This article attempts to engage in an interpretive line of thinking with regard to mathematics education, coming from the perspective of students learning to be early education teachers. Their understanding of the contexts for learning mathematical concepts, as well as their sensitivity to the processes of constructing mathematical knowledge by very young pupils, being a way of predicting what educational activities will be undertaken in the classroom in the future. This text is the result of qualitative analyses of written essays of early education students, where respondents had to make conceptualizations of their beliefs by justifying the selection of particular declarative statements. Students’ mathematical meanings were also uncovered in their strategies for solving mathematical problems for very young pupils. Moreover, the results of this analyses provides a context for reading the students’ understanding of mathematics learning processes.
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Abstract

The author champions the belief that Karl Marx offered a theory of capitalism, and not a theory of socialism. This explains, she argues, why we cannot find a detailed and well-constructed conception of human society that will exist in the future. Marx continued, however, to draw prognostic conclusions from his diagnosis of the capitalist status quo, and his numerous manuscripts are replete with social predictions. They were different at different times, and as the capitalist system tended to change in his lifetime, so changed Marx’s expectations about the future course of events. One thing remained unchanged, however. He always proclaimed the coming of a classless community based on the principle that a free development of each is a necessary prerequisite of a free development of all.
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Abstract

Pierre’a Bourdieu jedynie w znikomym stopniu korzysta ze źródeł biograficznych, przez co obraz kultur ludowych (w tym obraz socjalizacji samego autora) pozostaje niepełny. Wykorzystanie źródeł autobiograficznych pochodzących z różnych kultur i okresów historycznych umożliwia omówienie relatywnie niezmiennych wzorów kulturowych klasy ludowej. Artykuł porównuje dwa oparte na autobiograficznych wspomnieniach obrazy wzorów kultury robotniczej (ludowej) pochodzące z klasycznej pracy Richarda Hoggarta na temat brytyjskiej klasy robotniczej w połowie XX wieku oraz portretu współczesnej klasy robotniczej w USA, który stworzył Alfred Lubrano. Porównanie tych prac pozwala wyodrębnić siedem grup wzorów kulturowych, związanych kolejno (1) ze wspólnotowym życiem skoncentrowanym wokół domu, (2) wartościami (pozornie paradoksalne współistnienie konserwatyzmu i tolerancji w klasie ludowej), (3) wykorzystywaniem ciała jako towaru, (4) przyjętymi sposobami komunikacji, (5) trzema rodzajami „praktycyzmu”, a także (6) gustem kulinarnym i (7) sposobami gospodarowania domowym budżetem. Materiał ten pozwala pokazać metodologiczne możliwości, jakie stwarza rozszerzenie perspektywy metodologicznej Pierre’a Bourdieu o podejście biograficzne.
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