ll was proved that the activity of basic proteinases (pH 8.3) and acid proteinases (pH 4.0) of the Antarctic krill increases exponentially in spring-summer season (September-December); the activity of the first ones is 6 times higher and increases more rapidly. The positive relation between the proteolytic activity and the degree of gut filling of krill was also evidenced. The lack of high activity of acid proteinases in early spring does not support the suggestions of Ikeda and Dixon (1982) that during Antarctic winter krill takes energy from the autoproteolysis of own body proteins.
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is one of the instruments for remote detection of damage of structures (cavities, cracks) which is successfully used to assess technical conditions of building objects. Most of the point clouds analysis from TLS relies only on spatial information (3D–XYZ). This study presents an approach based on using the intensity value as an additional element of information in diagnosing technical conditions of architectural structures. The research has been carried out in laboratory and field conditions. Its results show that the coefficient of laser beam reflectance in TLS can be used as a supplementary source of information to improve detection of defects in constructional objects.
Improving energy efficiency is key to moving toward sustainable development. It contributes to the reduction of energy consumption and carbon emissions, as well as to climate change mitigation. Indicators of energy efficiency play an important role in this field because their improvement is targeted by policy makers. Indicators based on the ratio between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) are currently used by multiple key organizations, including Eurostat and the World Bank, as the main energy efficiency indicators. This study examines the most widely used indicators and identifies their deficiencies. Over the last decades, these indicators tend to show a continuous strong improvement, signifying positive progress toward energy efficiency, even in cases when the physical consumption of energy has increased significantly. This phenomenon is based on GDP adjustment. The energy intensity of economies, used currently to measure energy efficiency, masks problems and has led to the green labeling of wealthier economies. An analysis of energy efficiencies reported for multiple countries and the structure of their energy spending shows that the reported values are counterproductive for comparing economies in the context of environmental protection. The indicators sanction economies with low energy consumption and low or moderate GDP. The economies belonging to the group of the largest energy spenders per capita are labeled highly efficient because of GDP adjustment. Decision makers are therefore prompted to focus on GDP growth even at the cost of a major increase in energy consumption. An additional problem in the indicators is that they do not properly model international trade. The responsibility for energy spending is shifted toward the producers of energy-intensive goods and services. Energy intensity is a useful indicator to measure the resistance of an economy to the volatilities of energy prices. However, the challenges in the fields of environmental pollution and climate change are related to physical processes and energy consumption rather than to changes in the GDP or the monetary valuation of products and services. Indicators measuring energy efficiency as GDP per unit of energy use are inadequate and misleading as principal tools to measure energy efficiency.
Outdoor remote temperature measurements in the infrared range can be very inaccurate because of the influence of solar radiation reflected from a measured object. In case of strong directional reflection towards a measuring device, the error rate can easily reach hundreds per cent as the reflected signal adds to the thermal emission of an object. As a result, the measured temperature is much higher than the real one. Error rate depends mainly on the emissivity of an object and intensity of solar radiation. The position of the measuring device with reference to an object and the Sun is also important. The method of compensation of such undesirable influence of solar radiation will be presented. It is based on simultaneous measurements in two different spectral bands, shor-twavelength and long-wavelength ones. The temperature of an object is derived from long-wavelength data only, whereas the short-wavelength band, the corrective one, is used to estimate the solar radiation level. Both bands were selected to achieve proportional changes of the output signal due to solar radiation. Knowing the relation between emissivity and solar radiation levels in both spectral bands, it is possible to reduce the measurement error several times.
Nature reserves are one of the most important measures in saving biodiversity, however, during the climate change, a real danger arises, that these territories would not be able to fulfill the objectives. In order to mitigate negative effects of climate change in protected areas it is necessary to create and apply management programs, based on future ecosystems needs. The main aim of presented study was to evaluate sensitivity of rare and vulnerable species to climate change in order to suggest measures for better management of nature reserves in the future. According to scientific literature, 12 biological and ecological plant characteristics determining sensitivity of species (limiting factors) have been detected. 73 plant species that are protected in Lithuanian reserves were evaluated qualitatively according to limiting factors of climate change. As the result, it was offered to apply additional protection measures to 47 species in the light of climate change. Groups of plant species that should be affected highly negatively or highly positively were identified. 16% of plant species protected in nature reserves were evaluated as very sensitive to climate change and the condition of these plants may worsen. On the other hand, 14 plant species were given as least sensitive to negative effects and future climate is more favorable to species growth and spread than the existing. The highest danger is predicted for Silene chlorantha (Willd.) Ehrh., and the best condition is predicted for Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. Dactylorhiza incarnata (L.) Soó. The study also gives recommendations for the protection of rare plants in the future. Different management measures are taken into account: mitigation of the direct effect of climate change (I), improvement of an existing level of rareness (II), respecting the relation to physical and biological environment (III), consideration of spread and geographical limits (IV). Three management intensity levels were suggested according to species sensitivity.