The water’s edge is the most iconic and identifiable image related to the city of Durban and in seeking an ‘authenticity’ that typifies the built fabric of the city, the image that this place creates is arguably the answer. Since its formal establishment as a settlement in 1824, this edge has been a primary element in the urban fabric. Development of the space has been fairly incremental over the last two centuries, starting with colonial infl uenced built interventions, but much of what is there currently stems from the 1930’s onwards, leading to a Modernist and later Contemporary sense of place that is moderated by regionalist infl uences, lending itself to creating a somewhat contextually relevant image. This ‘international yet local’ sense of place is however under threat from the increasingly prominent ‘global’ image of a-contextual glass high-rise towers placed along a non-descript public realm typical of global capital interests that is a hallmark of the turnkey project trends by developers from the East currently sweeping the African continent.
Words and images of the Republic: Italian political propaganda (1946–1948) – The article intends to highlight how the transition from monarchy to republic represents a significant boundary in Italian history not only from the institutional point of view but also from that of national political propaganda, in which words and images – the expression of a harsh ideological confrontation – contributed to the building of a national collective memory of which there are still evident and rooted traces in current political confrontation.
In Nantes, the last shipyard closed in 1986 leaving the city in a desperate situation. The cranes, symbolizing the industrial activity, one by one stopped. Unemployment stroked. The question was between turning the page, tearing down the workshops and reinventing a new story or trying to preserve would appear to most of the population, a kind of modern bulky legacy. In the early 2000’s, the revitalization of Nantes’ former industrial area, led to developing a new way thinking. Instead of designing an urban map with major spots and rows of housing, A. Chemetoff thought better to draw an urban landscape where the past could mix with the future. The industrial heritage has been then preserved in two diff erent ways: construction halls have been reshaped preserving the original structure, everything should be reversed. The intangible heritage, meaning worker’s knowledge, has been reinvested in the cultural industry. This way, the image of the city, its brand, moved from industrial to cultural, attracting a new kind of business, mainly high-tech, students, in a new: “art de Vivre” (Art of living).
Landscape is an object of perception, while its image is the sum of ideas on this object. Both terms used in the title of the paper have fairly strong impact on each other. In order to manage the city’s image well, it is necessary to take care of the landscape in all its areas especially in the “forgotten” and degraded ones. The aim of the author was to identify elements of landscape exposure along railway lines – areas with low aesthetic value in many cities around the world. The research area includes railway lines, in Cracow and Wrocław. The method adopted for the implementation of the study is the analysis of mental maps made in 2018 during field workshops. The paper is ended by conclusions on the landscape impact on the image of the city.
Modern cities are increasingly promoting their own individual brands to gain a competitive advantage. 28 Polish cities, after joining the Cittaslow international network of cities, can additionally use their native brand in their activities. The aim of the author was to answer the question: should cities only use an individual brand, or maybe they can support these activities with a common brand strategy. The growth of interest in individual brands of 28 cities belonging to the Cittaslow network has been evaluated, also their popularity, popularity of the native brand on the Facebook, and the use of the Cittaslow brand by cities on their websites were analysed. It was noticed that not all cities use the Cittaslow logo. But most cities in Cittaslow publish a link to the network and brand information on their websites. The native brand Cittaslow is in Poland at the positioning stage but probably its popularity will grow as the benefits from using it begin to be noticed.
The image analysis consists in extracting from the information which is available to the observer of the part that is important from the perspective of the investigated process. This process usually accompanies a considerable reduction in the amount of information from the image. In the field of two-phase flows, computer image analysis can be used to determine flow and geometric parameters of flow patterns. This article presents the possibilities of using this method to determine the void fraction, vapor quality, bubble velocity and the geometric dimensions of flow patterns. The use of computer image analysis methods is illustrated by the example of HFE 7100 refrigerant methoxynonafluorobutane condensation in a glass tubular minichannel. The high speed video camera was used for the study, and the films and individual frames received during the study were analyzed.
The paper refers to the specific functional area, which identity was primarily based on the relationship with water – in major port cities, as well as related smaller settlemets. It discribes the phenomenon of using and reinterpreting the potential of a rich hydrographic network for constructing the contemporary spatial identity after the violent events of the 20th century. The case studies cited are differentiated due to the specifi city of the activities and the purpose of its implementation.
Fractal analysis is one of the rapidly evolving branches of mathematics and finds its application in different analyses such as pore space description. It constitutes a new approach to the issue of their natural irregularity and roughness. To be properly applied, it should be encompassed by an error estimation. The article presents and verifies uncertainties along with imperfections connected with image analysis and expands on the possible ways of their correction. One of key aspects of such research is finding both appropriate place and the number of photos to take. A coarse- grained sandstone thin section was photographed and then pictures were combined into one, bigger image. Fractal parameters distributions show their change and suggest that the accurately gathered group of photos include both highly and less porous regions. Their amount should be representative and adequate to the sample. The resolution influence on the fractal dimension and lacunarity values was examined. For SEM limestone images obtained using backscattered electrons, magnification in the range of 120x to 2000x was used. Additionally, a single pore was examined. The acquired results point to the fact that the values of fractal dimension are similar to a wide range of magnifications, while lacunarity changes each time. This is connected with changing homogeneity of the image. The article also undertakes a problem of determining fractal parameters spatial distribution based on binarization. The available methods assume that it is carried out after or before the image division into rectangles to create fractal dimension and lacunarity values for interpolation. An individual binarization, although time consuming, provides better results that resemble reality to a closer degree. It is not possible to define a single, correct methodology of error elimination. A set of hints has been presented that can improve results of further image analysis of pore space.
According to the psycho-lexical approach in the taxonomy of individual differences, those interpersonal differences, which are the most important for social functioning of individual, have been encoded into natural languages. Therefore by analyzing the lexicons of interpersonal differences, it is possible to identify structures of their descriptions. Application of the psycho-lexical approach in the field of psychology of individual differences lead to obtaining the relatively high consistency regarding scientific taxonomy of personality traits. Also models developed on this basis meet the most important criteria of goodness of the psychological structural models. As a result, the accumulation of knowledge about person’s psychological functioning have been intensified. The aim of the article is to present the specificity of lexical studies and their taxonomical potential for social sciences, as well as key threats and limitations, based on experience of previous psycho-lexical research.
The article deals with the issue of the meaning of the Polish early education coursebooks for conservation/change in educational practices. It is the liberal and constructivist discourse to which the coursebook authors should refer (especially in the context of the present time and democracy) if these books are to become a tool of the prodevelopmental and emancipatory interest of both students and society. However, the research on Polish coursebooks for early education (grades I – III), show that this very condition has not been ful3 lled. In such a situation it is the German school coursebooks that might be inspiring because of their discursive background as well as of the methodological proposals and the range of content present in them. The article is also an attempt to reconstruct “the image of school” present in German early education coursebooks. It is possible to name and describe the key dimensions in this image such as: the democratic nature of teacher-student relations, the focus on the activation of students’ personal knowledge as well as on their ethical and cognitive autonomy, realistic vision of the world, trust in students’ competences, and creating the sphere of the nearest development.
The article undertakes quastion of urban design in a context of urban sprawl linking it to the German debate on suburbanisation, conducted under the slogan of Zwischenstadt – a concept created by Th. Sieverts in 1997. The Ladenburger Kolleg „Zwischenstadt” (LKZ) developed 2002-2006 the interdisciplinary research titled: „Amidst the Edge: Zwischenstadt – towards the qualification of the urbanised landscape” The spatial effects of the dispersion processes were considered to be the manifestation of the creation of a new model of the city. The traditional image of urbanism does not fit its logic. Zwischenstadt (in-beetwen-city) recognized as a phase of the urbanization process, uncoordinated by any imposed urban vision, requires a innovative urban design leitmotives. This new planning tool is necessary to obtain the parameters needed to strengthen internal socio-economic development capabilities. The concept of the efficiency of urban design covered the issue of the character of a city›s image. The morphological studies on a megalopolis structure by Frankfurt a. Main, made a creative use of the Lynch research on the image of the city. Their main goal was to understand the characteristics of the dispersion meant as an urbanized landscape and to determine its susceptibility to the process of improving spatial quality – recognition of the endogenous potentials of generating a Zwischenstadt image.
Testing of image intensifier tubes is still done using mostly manual methods due to a series of both technical and legal problems with test automation. Computerized stations for semi-automated testing of IITs are considered as novelty and are under continuous improvements. This paper presents a novel test station that enables semi-automated measurement of image intensifier tubes. Wide test capabilities and advanced design solutions rise the developed test station significantly above the current level of night vision metrology.
This research proposes a method to enhance the payload message by embedding messages on the dilated edge areas by the Least Significant Bit (LSB) method. To add security aspects to messages, messages are not embedded directly on the LSB but encrypted with XOR operations with Most Significant Bit (MSB). The experimental results of the test in this study showed that the dilation process to some extent can increase the payload of 18.65% and the average bpp is 1.42 while maintaining the imperceptibilty quality of stego image with an average PSNR value of about 47 dB, SSIM is 0.9977 and MSE is 1.13.
The micro-Particle Image Velocimetry (micro-PIV) was used to measure flow velocities in micro-channels in two passive micromixers: a microfluidic Venturi mixer and a microfluidic spiral mixer, both preceded by standard “Y” micromixers. The micro-devices were made of borosilicate glass, with micro-engineering techniques dedicated to micro-PIV measurements. The obtained velocity profiles show differences in the flow structure in both cases. The micro-PIV enables understanding the micro-flow phenomena and can help to increase reproducibility of micromixers in mass production.
This study examines the pyrolysis of a single cylindrical wood particle using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The pyrolysis was conducted inside a pyrolysis reactor designed for this purpose. The experimental setup presented in this paper is capable of effectively characterizing the intensity of pyrolysis based on velocity distribution in the vicinity of wood particles. The results of the gas velocity distribution show that evaporation of moisture has as a major impact on the formation of the gas cushion as devolatilization.
This paper presents an algorithm for restoring telescope images corrupted by turbulence effects and readout noise of a telescope system in order to determine centroid positions of stars, especially the position of a reference star. A computation method employing an accurate centroid estimation algorithm reconstructing a point spread function (PSF) from the recorded astronomical images has been used. Minimisation of turbulence effects and telescope control system noise in long exposure images acquired and recorded by the ground telescope is proposed. As a solution of the distortion error a minimisation signal is dedicated to GoTo calibration procedures built in control mechanisms of the electromechanical telescope system. The proposed method has been verified in the Matlab environment for real deep sky images recorded by the ground telescope system.
A modification of the descriptor in a human detector using Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) is presented. The proposed modification requires inserting the values of average cell brightness resulting in the increase of the descriptor length from 3780 to 3908 values, but it is easy to compute and instantly gives ≈ 25% improvement of the miss rate at 10‒4 False Positives Per Window (FPPW). The modification has been tested on two versions of HOG-based descriptors: the classic Dalal-Triggs and the modified one, where, instead of spatial Gaussian masks for blocks, an additional central cell has been used. The proposed modification is suitable for hardware implementations of HOG-based detectors, enabling an increase of the detection accuracy or resignation from the use of some hardware-unfriendly operations, such as a spatial Gaussian mask. The results of testing its influence on the brightness changes of test images are also presented. The descriptor may be used in sensor networks equipped with hardware acceleration of image processing to detect humans in the images.
An automated method for crack identification and quantitative description of crack systems in concrete was developed in order to aid a service life assessment of concrete elements in structures. Flat polished specimens for crack analysis were impregnated with epoxy resin containing fluorescent dye. The examination of the crack system was performed in ultraviolet light using a stereomicroscope and an Image Pro Plus image analysis system on specimens cored out of several concrete structures. The laboratory tests were performed on cast specimens to establish correlations between water penetration and chloride diffusion and crack system parameters. The analysis of cracks in concrete cores taken from structures resulted in interesting conclusions based on the crack width distribution and crack localization with respect to steel reinforcement. The method was found very effective to support standard concrete diagnostics methods.
This paper presents the improved version of the classification system for supporting glaucoma diagnosis in ophthalmology. In this paper we propose the new segmentation step based on the support vector clustering algorithm which enables better classification performance.
The article proposes a method for measuring discomfort glare which uses numerical description of the phenomenon in the form of a digital luminance distribution map recorded on a CCD array. Essential procedures for determining partial quantities which are necessary for calculation of UGR index are discussed in detail, along with techniques for measuring position index and size of light sources, with regard to the parameters of the registering system and coordinates of the images of the sources on the array.
The paper presents test results for the assessment of the tracer content in a three-component (green peas, sorghum, maize) feed mixture that is based on the fluorescent method. The homogeneity of mixtures was determined on the basis of the maize content (as the key component), which was treated with fluorescent substance: tinopal, rhodamine B, uranine and eosin. The key components were wet-treated with fluorescent substances with different concentrations. Feed components were mixed in a vertical funnel-flow mixer. 10 samples were collected from each mixed batch. Samples were placed in a chamber equipped with UV light and, then, an image recorded as BMP file was generated. The image was analysed by means of the software programme Patan. On the basis of the analyses conducted, data on the maize content marked with a fluorescent marker were obtained. Additionally, the content of the key component was determined in a conventional manner – using an analytical scale. Results indicate the possibility of using this method for homogeneity assessment of the three-component grain mixture. From these tests, fluorescent substances that can be applied in the case of maize as a key component, together with their minimum concentrations, were identified: tinopal 0.3%, rhodamine B 0.001%.
The flow structure around rising single air bubbles in water and their characteristics, such as equivalent diameter, rising velocity and shape, was investigated using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Shadowgraphy in a transparent apparatus with a volume of 120 mL. The effect of different volumetric gas flow rates, ranging from 4 μL/min to 2 mL/min on the liquid velocity was studied. Ellipsoidal bubbleswere observedwith a rising velocity of 0.25–0.29m/s. It was found that a Kármán vortex street existed behind the rising bubbles. Furthermore, the wake region expanded with increasing volumetric gas flow rate as well as the number and size of the vortices.
Image registration is a key component of various image processing operations which involve the analysis of different image data sets. Automatic image registration domains have witnessed the application of many intelligent methodologies over the past decade; however inability to properly model object shape as well as contextual information had limited the attainable accuracy. In this paper, we propose a framework for accurate feature shape modeling and adaptive resampling using advanced techniques such as Vector Machines, Cellular Neural Network (CNN), SIFT, coreset, and Cellular Automata. CNN has found to be effective in improving feature matching as well as resampling stages of registration and complexity of the approach has been considerably reduced using corset optimization The salient features of this work are cellular neural network approach based SIFT feature point optimisation, adaptive resampling and intelligent object modelling. Developed methodology has been compared with contemporary methods using different statistical measures. Investigations over various satellite images revealed that considerable success was achieved with the approach. System has dynamically used spectral and spatial information for representing contextual knowledge using CNN-prolog approach. Methodology also illustrated to be effective in providing intelligent interpretation and adaptive resampling.
Qualitative and quantitative results of high terrain elevation effect on spectral radiance of optical satellite image which affect the accuracy in retrieving of land surface cover changes is given. The paper includes two main parts: correction model of spectral radiance of satellite image affected by high terrain elevation and assessment of impacts and variation of land cover changes before and after correcting influence of high terrain elevation to the spectral radiance of the image. Study has been carried out with SPOT 5 in Hoa Binh mountain area of two periods: 2007 and 2010. Results showed that appropriate correction model is the Meyer’s one. The impacts of correction spectral radiance to 7 classes of classified images fluctuate from 15% to 400%. The varying changes before and after correction of image radiation fluctuate over 7 classes from 5% to 100%.