Some physical concepts important for a hysteresis model (effective field, anhysteretic magnetization) are discussed on the example of Jiles-Atherton model. The Jiles-Atherton model reveals some drawbacks, which make this model more difficult to be applied in electrical engineering. In particular, it does not describe accurately the magnetization curves after a reversal, moreover complex magnetization cycles are poorly represented. On the other hand, the phenomenological description proposed by Takács seems to be a valuable alternative to the Jiles-Atherton formalism. The concept of effective field may be easily incorporated in the description.
Accurate demagnetization modelling is mandatory for a reliable design of rare-earth permanent magnet applications, such as e.g. synchronous machines. The magnetization of rare-earth permanent magnets requires high magnetizing fields. For technical reasons, it is not always possible to completely and homogeneously achieve the required field strength during a pulse magnetization, due to stray fields or eddy currents. Not sufficiently magnetized magnets lose remanence as well as coercivity and the demagnetization characteristic becomes strongly nonlinear. It is state of the art to treat demagnetization curves as linear. This paper presents an approach to model the nonlinear demagnetization in dependence on the magnetization field strength. Measurements of magnetization dependent demagnetization characteristics of rare-earth permanent magnets are compared to an analytical model description. The physical meaning of the model parameters and the influence on them by incomplete magnetization are discussed for different rare-earth permanent magnet materials. Basically, the analytic function is able to map the occurring magnetization dependent demagnetization behavior. However, if the magnetization is incomplete, the model parameters have a strong nonlinear behavior and can only be partially attributed to physical effects. As a benefit the model can represent nonlinear demagnetization using a few parameters only. The original analytical model is from literature but has been adapted for the incomplete magnetization. The discussed effect is not sufficiently accurate modelled in literature. The sparse data in literature has been supplemented with additional pulsed-field magnetometer measurements.
Magnetic properties of Fe nanowire arrays (NWs) electrodeposited in anodic alumina membranes have been studied. The influence of nanowire geometry (length, pore diameter) and an external magnetic field applied during electrodeposition process on the magnetic properties of nanowire arrays was investigated. With the use of the X-ray diffraction analysis the structure of iron wires was determined. The iron wires have the regular Body Centered Cubic structure. Magnetic measurements show that shape anisotropy aligns the preferential magnetization axis along the wire axis. It was found that the application of an external magnetic field in a parallel direction to the sample surface induces magnetic anisotropy with an easy axis of magnetization following the nanowire axis. The dependence of the height of Fe wires on the electrodeposition time was determined.
A temperature dependent model is necessary for the generation of hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic materials. In this study, a physical model based on the Jiles-Atherton model has been developed to study the effect of temperature on the magnetic hysteresis loop. The thermal effects were included through a model of behavior depending on the temperature parameters Ms and k of the Jiles-Atherton model. The temperaturedependent Jiles-Atherton model was validated through measurements made on ferrite material (3F3). The results have been found to be in good agreement with the model.
This paper presents a method for estimation of core losses in banks of single phase power transformers that are subjected to an injected DC current such as geomagnetically induced currents (GIC). The main procedure of the core loss calculation is to obtain a magnetic flux density waveform in both time and location by using a novel algorithm based on 3D FEM inside the core and then to calculate the loss distribution based on loss separation theory. Also, a simple and effective method is proposed for estimation of losses of asymmetric minor loops by using combination of symmetric loops. The effect of DC biasing on core losses in single phase power transformers is investigated and the sensitivity of core type and material is evaluated. the results shows that DC current biasing could increase core losses up to 40 percent or even more.
The fixed-point theorem is widely used in different engineering applications. The present paper focuses on its applications in optimisation. A Matlab toolbox, chich implements the branch-and-bound optimisation method based on the fixed-point theorem, is used for solving different real-life test problems, including estimation of model parameters for the Jiles-Atherton model.
An extension of the modified Jiles-Atherton description to include the effect of anisotropy is presented. Anisotropy is related to the value of the angular momentum quantum number J, which affects the form of the Brillouin function used to describe the anhysteretic magnetization. Moreover the shape of magnetization dependent R(m) function is influenced by the choice of the J value.
The ways of the improvement of the method for the determination of steel losses in the electrical devices of basic types are substantiated. The method is refined by taking into account the magnetic system properties at high saturation. The presence of the interrelation between the special features of the domain structure movement and the shape of the hysteresis loop is proved for laminated cores. It enabled the explanation of the causes for the abnormally high values of the losses in the steel and the atypical shapes of the hysteresis loops at its high saturation. The empiric dependence for the determination of steel losses is obtained. It provides for the high convergence of the calculated and experimental data at the actual degree of saturation and can be used in the direct-current operation of the analyzed devices.
The accurate prediction of iron losses has become a prominent problem in electromagnetic machine design. The basis of all iron loss models is found in the spatial field-locus of the magnetic flux density (B) and magnetic field (H). In this paper the behavior of the measured BH-field-loci is considered in FEM simulation. For this purpose, a vector hysteresis model is parameterized based on the global measurements, which then can be used to reproduce the measurement system and obtain more detailed insights on the device and its local field distribution. The IEM has designed a rotary loss tester for electrical steel, which can apply arbitrary BH-field-loci occurring during electrical machine operation. Despite its simplicity, the proposed pragmatic analytical model for vector hysteresis provides very promising results.
The purpose of this paper is to focus on the loss separation of non-grain-oriented electrical steels used for speed-variable rotating electrical machines. The impact of laser-cutting, used in prototype manufacturing and of flux density harmonics, occurring locally in the lamination, on the loss distribution is studied in detail. Iron losses occurring under operation can physically be separated in different loss components. In this paper, a frequency-based loss model with parameters identified for single-sheet tester specimens, cut in strips of different widths, is therefore used. Moreover, a time-domain approach considers loss distributions occurring from higher harmonics. Hysteresis losses having high sensitivity to cut edge effects are calculated by the well-known Jiles-Atherton model adapting the frequency-based loss parameters. The model is validated by free-curve measurements at a single-sheet tester. It has been shown that the studied elliptical hysteresis model becomes inaccurate particularly for specimens with small strip widths with similar dimensions as teeth of electrical machine laminations. The incorrect mapping of losses occurring from minor hysteresis loops due to higher harmonics is concluded. The results showconsequently that both, the impact of a cut edge effect and local distributions of flux density harmonics need to be considered in terms of accurate iron loss prediction of electrical machine design.
Measurements of dynamic surface tension were carried out in aqueous systems (water or 0.1 mM Triton X-100) comprising nanoparticles formed from chemically modified polyaldehyde dextran (PAD). The nanostructures, considered as potential drug carriers in aerosol therapy, were obtained from biocompatible polysaccharides by successive oxidation and reactive coiling in an aqueous solution. The dynamic surface tension of the samples was determined by the maximum bubble pressure (MBP) method and by the axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA). Experiments with harmonic area perturbations were also carried out in order to determine surface dilatational viscoelasticity. PAD showed a remarkable surface activity. Ward-Tordai equation was used to determine the equilibrium surface tension and diffusion coefficient of PAD nanoparticles (D = 2.3×10-6 m2/s). In a mixture with Triton X-100, PAD particles showed co-adsorption and synergic effect in surface tension reduction at short times (below 10 s). Tested nanoparticles had impact on surface rheology in a mixed system with nonionic surfactant, suggesting their possible interactions with the lung surfactant system after inhalation. This preliminary investigation sets the methodological approach for further research related to the influence of inhaled PAD nanoparticles on the lung surfactant and mass transfer processes in the respiratory system.
Reinforced concrete composite slab consists of a thin prefabricated slab in which span reinforcement is located and of concrete joined with the slab, with such concrete being laid on site. The existence of a joint of two concretes in such floors is interpreted as introducing a contact layer into a monolithic slab. In the paper parameters of two models are estimated. The first is a model of a contact layer and the second is a model of a composite slab with a single degree of freedom. The models consider that the contact has elastic properties and inelastic properties causing energy dissipation. Experimental investigations are discussed further based on which the parameters values of the contact layer model were determined. Delamination was experienced for the slabs characterised by low contact layer stiffness after applying a maximum load. In addition, the strains of a contact layer having low stiffness are accompanied by lower energy dissipation than of a layer with high stiffness. The smaller stiffness of composite floors, as compared to monolithic floors, occurs as a consequence of the existence of a joint. Such decrease for a composite slab is interpreted in the model with a single degree of freedom as the serial connection of stiffness of a monolithic slab and an element considering the existence of a contact layer. The stiffness of an element considering the existence of a contact layer decreases along with a load, and the elements corresponding to the higher stiffness of the contact layer are characterised by higher energy dissipation. The aforementioned results of the investigations confirm the assumptions of the contact layer model and a composite slab model with a single degree of freedom. The findings made represent a basis for establishing a method of evaluating the condition of a joint in composite slabs according to statistical investigations.
The Goss texture is a characteristic feature of grain-oriented transformer steel sheets. Generator sheets, which are produced as non-oriented steel sheets, should have isotropic features. However, measurement results of generator sheets, confirmed by crystallographic studies, indicate that these sheets are characterized by certain, quite significant anisotropy. The first purpose of this paper is to present the influence of textures of generator and transformer steel sheets on their magnetization characteristics. The second aim is to propose a method which takes into account the sheet textures in the calculations of magnetization curves. In calculations of magnetization processes in electrical steel sheets, models in which the plane of a sheet sample is divided into an assumed number of specified directions are used. To each direction a certain hysteresis loop, the so-called direction hysteresis, is assigned. The parameters of these direction hystereses depend, among other things, on the texture type in these steel sheets. This paper discusses the method which calculates the parameters of these direction hystereses taking into account the given sheet texture. The proposed method gives a possibility of determining the magnetization characteristics for any direction of the field intensity changes.
In the paper an algorithm and computer code for the identification of the hysteresis parameters of the Jiles-Atherton model have been presented. For the identification the particle swarm optimization method (PSO) has been applied. In the optimization procedure five design variables has been assumed. The computer code has been elaborated using Delphi environment. Three types of material have been examined. The results of optimization have been compared to experimental ones. Selected results of the calculation for different material are presented and discussed.
In the paper, the mathematical model of coupled electromagnetic and thermal phenomena in the pulse transformer taking into account the magnetic hysteresis is presented. For the mapping of magnetic hysteresis, Jiles-Atherton model is applied. In order to solve field equations, the finite element method (FEM), "step-by-step" procedure and Newton-Raphson algorithm are used. Software elaborated on this basis is used for analysis of hysteresis loss in the core. Selected results of investigations are shown.