Lower Carboniferous limestone has been extracted in the “Czatkowice” open-pit hill-slope quarry in southern Poland since 1947, for the needs of metallurgical and building industries, as well as farming. We can distinguish two aquifers in the Czatkowice area: the Quaternary porous aquifer and the Carboniferous fissure-porous one. Two vertical zones representing different hydrodynamic characteristics can be indentified in the Carboniferous formations. One is a weathering zone and the other one the zone of fissures and interbedding planes. Groundwater inflows into the quarry workings have been observed at the lowest mining level (+315 m above the sea level (asl)) for over 30 years. This study concerns two hypotheses of the sources of such inflows originating either from (a) the aeration zone or from (b) the saturation zone. Inflows into the quarry combine into one stream flowing gravitationally to the doline under the pile in the western part of the quarry. This situation does not cause a dewatering need. Extending eastward mining and lowering of the exploitation level lead to increased inflows.
In the paper, the technology of the production of the modified ceramic proppants used in the shale gas extracting process is described. The natural available materials and uncomplicated process to new ceramic proppants preparation were applied. The modification of the ceramic proppants based on the addition of the waste material as fly ash. The produced ceramic material in the form of granules characterized by high mechanical properties and low production costs. Moreover, the obtained good values of compressive strength and gas permeability for investigated proppants confirmed that this material has appropriate properties to be used in the hydraulic fracturing.
In Poland, the economic use of methane from coal seams has been recognized as one of the objectives of the „Energy Policy of Poland until 2030“. In Poland at the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, reconnaissance operations were initiated to collect methane from coal seams using drilling wells and hydraulic fracturing operations. During these operations, noise emission can have a significant impact on the environment. In order to limit the negative impact of noise, well pads are usually located in undeveloped areas. However, in the European Union, the majority of hard coal deposits from which methane can be extracted are located in areas with a high population density. This article presents the results of noise measurements carried out during hydraulic fracturing operations of coal seams and the results of calculations of the equivalent sound level during the daytime. Based on the analysis of noise emission, some recommendations are given regarding the location of planned new well pads in highly urbanized areas in order to meet the applicable standards of noise protection.