We examined the development of the endosperm chalazal haustorium of Rhinanthus serotinus, using histochemical assays and light and electron microscopy. The chalazal haustorium is a huge single cell containing two enlarged nuclei. The nuclei are located in the middle of the haustorium cell. At the chalazal end of the haustorium cell structure, ultrastructural study revealed the presence of a transfer wall forming wall ingrowths. At all examined stages of haustorium cell development we identified insoluble polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids and lipid droplets. Macromolecules were especially abundant in the fully differentiated haustorium cell. Our results suggest that the endosperm chalazal haustorium is a site of intense metabolic activity
The flowers of Polemonium caeruleum are protandrous. The nectary is in the form of a rim encircling the ovary. Secreted nectar accumulates in a chamber located at the bottom of the floral tube and is protected by dense staminal hairs. The nectary tissue is not vascularized, but is supplied by vascular strands that occur near the base of the nectary and which directly supply the stamens. Nectar is secreted via modified stomata located on the upper part of the rim, particularly on the adaxial surface. The number of stomata and the volume and sugar concentration of nectar are greater during the female stage than during the male stage. In both stages, however, the nectar is sucrose-dominant. This paper shows that in P. caeruleum the nectar sugars are not a direct product of current photosynthesis, since plastids of nectary cells are devoid of chlorophyll. The main source of sugars in secreted nectar is the phloem sap, together with starch that accumulates in the nectary cells during the male stage and is then rapidly hydrolyzed during the female stage.