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Number of results: 5
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Abstract

Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate (H1) and fluazifop- -P-butyl (H2) herbicides with adjuvants on the common reed without cutting and at two different cutting levels (10 and 30 cm). The adjuvants were urea, nitric acid and sulfonic acid. The relative importance value (RIV), leaf chlorophyll content and plant density were determined to assay the efficacy of herbicides. Glyphosate treatment only (H1a) was more effective than fluazifop-P-butyl (H2a) on reeds without cutting and at the 10 cm cutting level. However, no significant difference was observed between them at the 30 cm cutting level. A positive effect of plant cutting occurred on the efficacy of all herbicides applied alone or in a tank mix with adjuvants. Furthermore, the 10 cm cutting level was more effective in eradication of reeds than the 30 cm cutting level. The adjuvants significantly improved the efficacy of the recommended (Hb) and half recommended (Hc) herbicide rates in comparison to being used alone on uncut reeds. The reduction percentages were 94.5, 86.99, 76.61 and 69.94 for H1b, H1c, H2b and H2c treatments, respectively. However, the adjuvants did not improve the glyphosate effect at different levels of cutting. Conversely the reduction percentage of reeds was improved by the recommended rate of fluazifop-P-butyl with adjuvants (H2b) to 92.77% and 84.62% at 10 and 30 cm cutting levels, respectively.
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Abstract

The “second generation” of glyphosate-tolerant soybean (GT2 soybean) was developed through a different technique of insertion of the glyphosate-insensitive EPSPs gene, in comparison with “first generation” of glyphosate-tolerant soybean. However, there is not enough information available about glyphosate selectivity in GT2 soybean and the effects on the quality of seeds produced. The aim of this study was to evaluate tolerance to glyphosate and seed quality of soybean cultivar NS 6700 IPRO (GT2) with cp4-EPSPs and cry1Ac genes, after application at post-emergence (V4). The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replicates and seven treatments, or rates of glyphosate (0; 720; 1,440; 2,160; 2,880; 3,600; 4,320 g of acid equivalent − a.e. · ha−1). Assessments were performed for crop injury, SPAD index and variables related to agronomic performance and seed quality. A complementary trial with the same cultivar and treatments in a greenhouse was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications. Data analysis indicated no significant effect of glyphosate on V4 on agronomic performance and physiological quality of seeds, for two growing seasons. The soybean cultivar NS 6700 IPRO (GT2), with cp4-EPSPs and cry1Ac genes, was tolerant to glyphosate up to the maximum rate applied (4,320 g a.e. · ha−1) at post-emergence (V4). The quality of soybean seeds was not affected by glyphosate up to the maximum rate applied (4,320 g a.e. · ha−1) at post-emergence (V4).
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Abstract

The aim of the present work was to evaluate the selectivity of nicosulfuron, alone and in combinations, applied in post-emergence (V4) of glyphosate and sulfonylurea tolerant (RR/STS) soybean. The experiments were conducted in 2015/16 and 2016/17, in Piracicaba – state of São Paulo (SP). In 2016/17, the experiment was also conducted in Palotina – state of Paraná (PR). The experiment was a randomized block design, with four repetitions and 16 treatments, with combinations of nicosulfuron, glyphosate, chlorimuron, sulfometuron and cloransulam, applied alone or in tank mixture. Crop injury and variables related to agronomic performance were evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and treatment means were compared by the Tukey test. The results obtained are significant in the positioning of herbicides in RR/STS soybean, since in the five experiments, all the treatments were selective, except for glyphosate + sulfometuron which reduced the yield of a cultivar (CD 2630 RR/STS) in the 2015/16 season.
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Abstract

A novel herbicidal controlled release formulation composed of (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D) chemically bonded to biodegradable (R,S)-3-hydroxybutyric acid oligomers was investigated. The synthesis of (R,S)-3-hydroxy butyric acid oligomers was carried out via the ring opening polymerization of β-butyrolactone initiated by 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic potassium salt in the presence of complexing agents. The formed oligomers were characterized by size exclusion chromatography, proton magnetic resonance and electrospray mass spectrometry in order to fi nd out their molar mass distribution and molecular structures. An assessment of biological effectiveness of the obtained herbicidal formulation was carried out in the greenhouse vs. Sinapis alba var. Nakielska. A promotion of the controlled release formulation with decreased water solubility and with low vapor pressure of the active ingredient, instead of traditional formulations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid may help to ensure a greater safety for workers and reduce the risk of dissemination of the active ingredient in the soil profi le.
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