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Abstract

The rules and guidelines for integrated pest management specified in Annex III, sections 2 and 3, state “General principles of integrated pest management”: Harmful organisms must be monitored by adequate methods and tools, where available. Such adequate tools should include observations in the field as well as scientifically sound warnings, forecasting and early diagnostic systems, where feasible, as well as advice from professionally qualified advisors. As part of Multiannual Programs, the Institute of Plant Protection – NRI in Poznań has been carrying out work and research for many years to develop or modify guidelines for monitoring short- and long-term forecasting of pest occurrence on crops. These guidelines are extremely helpful for farmers and advisers in determining the optimum date of chemical control of pests on plants. Regularly revised and improved the guidelines deal with pests which currently pose a threat to crops. They are developed according to the latest scientific findings and are successfully promoted among professional users and agricultural advisors. These guidelines are standardized to include descriptions of species, life cycles, symptoms of damage/infestation of crops, methods of observation targeted at warning of the need for plant protection treatments, and threshold values of harmfulness. All guidelines include extensive photographic material. Guidelines for the monitoring of pests on orchard plants, vegetables and others are prepared at the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation − NRI in Puławy and the Institute of Pomology in Skierniewice. Guidelines for about 80 pests of crops are available for public use in the on-line Pest Warning System (Platforma Sygnalizacji Agrofagów, www.agrofagi.com.pl).
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Abstract

This article aims to discuss the notion of environmental damage under the CLC 1992 and FUND 1992 as stated in the new Guidelines for Presenting Claims for Environmental Damage prepared by the International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds. That approach is contrasted with the solution adopted in the United States of America under the OPA. Particular attention is given to the problems of compensation for lost services of the environment, as well as providing alternative environment as a restoration measure. The judgments of French and Spanish courts in the Erika and Prestige cases are discussed, raising questions as to suitability of the CLC 1992/FUND 1992 system.
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