Recent outbreaks of adenovirus (FAdV) infections in poultry flocks have been determined in many countries in Europe, Asia and Australia connected with economic consequences, and loses in poultry production. To better understand the evolution and transmission of FAdV viruses, de- tailed codon usage analysis was performed for 137 recently obtained FAdV strains. A high effec- tive number of codons, and an indication the presence of low codon usage were determined. The presence of mutations, and their influence on codon usage was confirmed by a correlation be- tween nucleotide compositions at the 3rd codon positions, HVRs1-4, and ENCs. This presence indicate some influence of natural selection, and antigenic properties of examined FAdV strains.
Hordeum murinum L. is a polyploid complex of thermophilic, annual, zoochoric grasses of Mediterranean–Irano- Turanian origin that is commonly present in Europe. H. murinum complex includes three annual and most often autogamous taxa: glaucum, leporinum and murinum. The variation of nuclear microsatellites, chloroplast microsatellites and chloroplast SNP-based PCR-RFLP markers of H. murinum from Europe was analyzed in order to investigate its migration. The chloroplast markers revealed three distinct haplotypes. Two of them are characteristic of leporinum and murinum. A geographical pattern of haplotypes has been detected, however it does not correspond to the known patterns of migration routes in the Holocene. Geographic distribution of genotypes defined by nuclear microsatellites has shown a geographic trend that may link the migration of leporinum and murinum with the spread of Neolithic agriculture in Europe. This study also confirms genetic distinction of glaucum, as well as genetic uniformity of murinum and leporinum.
Animals as a source of organs and tissues for xenotransplantation could become a backup solution for the growing shortage of human donors. The presence of human xenoreactive anti- bodies directed against Galα1,3Gal antigens on the cell surface of a pig donor triggers the activa- tion of the complement leading to a hyperacute reaction. The development of genetic engineer- ing techniques has enabled the modification of genomes by knocking in and/or knocking out genes. In this paper, we report the generation of modified pigs with ZFN mediated disruption of the GGTA1 gene encoding the enzyme responsible for synthesis of Galα1,3Gal antigens. ZFN plasmids designed to target the exon 9 region of the pig GGTA1 gene encoding the catalytic domain were injected into the pronuclei of fertilized egg cells. Among 107 piglets of the F0 gene- ration analyzed, one female with 9-nt deletion in exon 9 of the GGTA1 gene was found. 13 of 33 piglets of the F1 generation represented the +/- GGTA1 genotype and 2 of 13 F2 piglets repre- sented the -/- GGTA1 genotype. No changes in the animals’ behavior, phenotype or karyotype were observed. Analysis confirmed heredity of the trait in all animals. A complex functional analysis of the modified animals, including flow cytometry, human serum cytotoxicity test and immunohistochemical detection, was performed to estimate the phenotype effect of genetic modification and this indicated an efficient GGTA1 knock-out in modified pigs.