The paper presents results of numerical calculations and experimental data on the directional pattern of two 38-element parametric arrays composed of ultrasound sources. Two types of antenna arrays are considered, namely with parallel and coaxial connections of ultrasonic transducers (elements). The results of selecting and functional testing of unit elements are described in this paper. It is found that in the coaxial element connection of the antenna array, the level of side lobes is higher than that in the parallel element connection.
The article presents the most frequent surname in Lithuania — Kazlauskas. Referring to the article “Mysterious Lewandowski” by K. Skowronek (2000), an attempt has been made to account for this frequency in three various ways. First, the principles behind the quantitative structure of anthroponomasticons (Zipf’s law) and the loss of surnames (genetic drift) are discussed. Then the Slavic origin of the surname under consideration has been highlighted as a typical trait of the majority of surnames in Lithuania. In connection with this fact, it has been stressed that caution must be exercised in proposing a thesis on its origin as a translation from Lithuanian on a mass scale, since this thesis requires plentiful empirical evidence. Finally, the etymology of the name is analyzed. Morphologically it is a typical surname derived from a toponym. This supposition is additionally supported by the existence in Poland of numerous localities called Kozłów, Kozłowo or similar name; these in turn are most likely to have been derived from appellative-based personal names of their owners or inhabitants, such as Kozieł.
In this paper, two new sinusoidal signal frequency estimators calculated on the basis of four equally spaced signal samples are presented. These estimators are called four-point estimators. Simulation and experimental research consisting in signal frequency estimation using the invented estimators have been carried out. Simulation has also been performed for frequency tracking. The simulation research was carried out applying the MathCAD computer program that determined samples of a sinusoidal signal disturbed by Gaussian noise. In the experimental research, sinusoidal signal samples were obtained by means of a National Instruments PCI-6024E data acquisition card and an Agilent 33220A function generator. On the basis of the collected samples, the values of four-point estimators invented by the authors and, for comparison, the values of three- and four-point estimators proposed by Vizireanu were determined. Next, estimation errors of the signal frequency were determined. It has been shown that the invented estimators can estimate a signal frequency with greater accuracy.
A new method of optical frequency beat counting based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis is described. Signals with a worse signal-to-noise ratio can be counted correctly comparing to the conventional counting method of detecting each period separately. The systematic error of FFT counting below 10 Hz is demonstrated and can be decreased. Additionally the modulation width of a frequency-stabilized laser with high frequency modulation index can be simultaneously measured during a carrier frequency measurement against an optical frequency synthesizer or other laser.
In 2018, the 90th anniversary of Professor Vasiliy Danilovich Bondaletov`s birth will be celebrated. The aim of the article is to remind readers of the quantitative and qualitative method of statistical analysis in anthroponomastic research developed by Professor Bondaletov, as well as to show its advantages over simplified descriptions of the frequency of personal names. In this article, the detailed analysis of male Christian names found in customs books from Northern Russia (1633–1636 and 1678–1680) was conducted. The comparison of statistical data, according to the suggestion of Professor V. D. Bondaletov, enabled us to observe subtle differences between the abovementioned resources, namely to estimate the level of their (dis)similarity and describe the dynamics of the evolution of the resources of male Christian names throughout the 17th century, as well as changes in the popularity of various names.
The authors discuss the main premises of the project “The most popular surnames in Poland — past and present. E-dictionary” which has been in development since July 2014 in IJP PAN in Krakow. They also present its basic aims and functions, progress already made and they compare it with other dictionaries of surnames. The authors describe several aspects of the dictionary related to IT and computers but also those concerned with onomastics and lexicography. Additionally, they pay particular attention to the information contained in specific parts of each entry.
High voltage direct current (HVDC) emergency control can significantly improve the transient stability of an AC/DC interconnected power grid, and is an important measure to reduce the amount of generator and load shedding when the system fails. For the AC/DC interconnected power grid, according to the location of failure, disturbances can be classified into two categories: 1) interconnected system tie-line faults, which will cause the power unbalance at both ends of the AC system, as a result of the generator rotor acceleration at the sending-end grid and the generator rotor deceleration at the receiving-end grid; 2) AC system internal faults, due to the isolation effect of the DC system, only the rotor of the generator in the disturbed area changes, which has little impact on the other end of the grid. In view of the above two different locations of disturbance, auxiliary power and frequency combination control as well as a switch strategy, are proposed in this paper. A four-machine two-area transmission system and a multi-machine AC/DC parallel transmission system were built on the PSCAD platform. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
This paper presents an approximate analytical model for estimating the transmission loss (TL) of a finite rectangular plate in the low frequency range, which is based on the modal summation approach (MSA) taking into account the modal radiation impedance and fluid loading. The mode-dependent radiation resistance is calculated using the Rayleigh integral. The fluid loading is taken into account through the natural frequency modified by the added mass. The results are compared with the ones of Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) coupled with FEM and FEM coupled with BEM. In addition, the effects of the various vibration modes and the fluid loading on TL, and a way for reducing the calculation time are discussed.
The human voice is one of the basic means of communication, thanks to which one also can easily convey the emotional state. This paper presents experiments on emotion recognition in human speech based on the fundamental frequency. AGH Emotional Speech Corpus was used. This database consists of audio samples of seven emotions acted by 12 different speakers (6 female and 6 male). We explored phrases of all the emotions – all together and in various combinations. Fast Fourier Transformation and magnitude spectrum analysis were applied to extract the fundamental tone out of the speech audio samples. After extraction of several statistical features of the fundamental frequency, we studied if they carry information on the emotional state of the speaker applying different AI methods. Analysis of the outcome data was conducted with classifiers: K-Nearest Neighbours with local induction, Random Forest, Bagging, JRip, and Random Subspace Method from algorithms collection for data mining WEKA. The results prove that the fundamental frequency is a prospective choice for further experiments.
In this study, free and forced vibration responses of carbon nanotube reinforced uniform and tapered composite beams are investigated. The governing differential equations of motion of a carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced uniform and tapered composite beams are presented in finite element formulation. The validity of the developed formulation is demonstrated by comparing the natural frequencies evaluated using present FEM with those of available in literature. Various parametric studies are also performed to investigate the effect of aspect ratio, percentage of CNT content, ply orientation, and boundary conditions on natural frequencies and mode shapes of a CNT reinforced composite beam. It was observed that the addition of carbon nanotube in fiber reinforced polymer composite (FRP) beam enhances the stiffness of the structure which consequently increases the natural frequencies and alters the mode shapes.
When a frequency domain sensor is under the effect of an input stimulus, there is a frequency shift at its output. One of the most important advantages of such sensors is their converting a physical input parameter into time variations. In consequence, changes of an input stimulus can be quantified very precisely, provided that a proper frequency counter/meter is used. Unfortunately, it is well known in the time-frequency metrology that if a higher accuracy in measurements is needed, a longer time for measuring is required. The principle of rational approximations is a method to measure a signal frequency. One of its main properties is that the time required for measuring decreases when the order of an unknown frequency increases. In particular, this work shows a new measurement technique, which is devoted to measuring the frequency shifts that occur in frequency domain sensors. The presented research result is a modification of the principle of rational approximations. In this work a mathematical analysis is presented, and the theory of this new measurement method is analysed in detail. As a result, a new formalism for frequency measurement is proposed, which improves resolution and reduces the measurement time.
Microwave frequency detectors enable immediate determination of an unknown microwave signal frequency. Measurement is possible if the output characteristic of a frequency detector is unequivocal in a selected band of operation. The paper presents a method for obtaining unequivocal output characteristics for a given band of frequency detector operation.
This paper proposes a self-excited induction generator model with saturation effect for power generating mode in a remote site. The model is led through the space vector mathematical formalism and allows one to analyze the steady and dynamic states. It is developed for a squirrel cage induction machine. This model provides magnetizing inductance variation able to influence the build-up and the stabilization of voltage generation when the load changes. The final result is a realistic approach model which takes into con- sideration the dependency of the magnetizing inductance versus magnetizing current. This novel model is validated through experimental measurements to demonstrate its validity and practicability.
In this paper, a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based approach is proposed for power system frequency estimation. Unlike the existing frequency estimators mainly used for power system monitoring and control, the proposed approach is developed for fundamental frequency estimation in the field of energy metering of nonlinear loads. The characteristics of a nonlinear load is that the power signal is heavily distorted, composed of harmonics, inter-harmonics and corrupted by noise. The main idea is to predetermine a series of frequency points, and the mean value of two frequency points nearest to the power system frequency is accepted as the approximate solution. Firstly the input signal is modulated with a series of modulating signals, whose frequencies are those frequency points. Then the modulated signals are decomposed into individual frequency bands using DWT, and differences between the maximum and minimum wavelet coefficients in the lowest frequency band are calculated. Similarities among power system frequency and those frequency points are judged by the differences. Simulation results have proven high immunity to noise, harmonic and inter-harmonic interferences. The proposed method is applicable for real-time power system frequency estimation for electric energy measurement of nonlinear loads.
Centrifugal pumps are used for different applications that include pressure boosting, wastewater, water supply, heating and cooling distribution and other industrial processes. This paper presents theoretical and experimental investigations of mechanical vibrations of a centrifugal pump. The flow in this pump, which induces pressure pulsations and mechanical vibrations, have been monitored. Vibration measurements and data collection (overall vibrations levels and frequency spectrum) were extracted from the system. In addition, one of the methods used to study vibration amplitudes for this pump is forced response analysis. To study and analyze the pump system, the finite element analysis software (ANSYS) was applied. Depending on the analysis performed and investigations outcomes, the system natural frequency coincides with the vane-pass frequency (VPF) hazardously. To attenuate the system’s vibration, a vibration control element was used. The vibration levels were reduced by a factor of 2 for a tuned element as obtained from a forced harmonic response analysis of the pump system with absorber. It is shown that the inserted element allows the centrifugal pump to work in a safe operating range without any interference with its operation.
The paper deals with the basic set-up of single-frequency microchip laser - so called Lyot filter configuration. Description of its operation and practical realization is given. Some results obtained for Nd:YAG/KTP microchip laser are presented. The evidences of single-frequency operation and its limits are emphasized. Described construction constitutes the base for building the frequency stabilization of green 532 nm microchip laser.
In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a new method for optical frequency transfer over fibre. Instead of dual acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) as adopted in the traditional fibre phase noise compensation setup, here an active fibre phase noise compensation scheme with a single acousto-optic modulator (AOM) is used. The configuration simplifies the equipment of the user end while maintaining a high-performance optical frequency transfer stability. We demonstrate an actively stabilized coherent transfer at an optical frequency of 193.55THz over 10-km spooled fibre, obtaining a relative frequency stability (Allan deviation) of 3:84 #2; 10��16/1 s and 4:08 #2; 10��18/104 s, which is improved by about 2#24;3 orders of magnitude in comparison with the one without any phase noise compensation that achieves a relative frequency stability of 1:81 #2; 10��14/1 s and 2:48 #2; 10��15/104 s.
Time-Frequency (t-f) distributions are frequently employed for analysis of new-born EEG signals because of their non-stationary characteristics. Most of the existing time-frequency distributions fail to concentrate energy for a multicomponent signal having multiple directions of energy distribution in the t-f domain. In order to analyse such signals, we propose an Adaptive Directional Time-Frequency Distribution (ADTFD). The ADTFD outperforms other adaptive kernel and fixed kernel TFDs in terms of its ability to achieve high resolution for EEG seizure signals. It is also shown that the ADTFD can be used to define new time-frequency features that can lead to better classification of EEG signals, e.g. the use of the ADTFD leads to 97.5% total accuracy, which is by 2% more than the results achieved by the other methods.
Studies of electrical properties, including noise properties, of thick-film resistors prepared from various resistive and conductive materials on LTCC substrates have been described. Experiments have been carried out in the temperature range from 300 K up to 650 K using two methods, i.e. measuring (i) spectra of voltage fluctuations observed on the studied samples and (ii) the current noise index by a standard meter, both at constant temperature and during a temperature sweep with a slow rate. The 1/f noise component caused by resistance fluctuations occurred to be dominant in the entire range of temperature. The dependence of the noise intensity on temperature revealed that a temperature change from 300 K to 650 K causes a rise in magnitude of the noise intensity approximately one order of magnitude. Using the experimental data, the parameters describing noise properties of the used materials have been calculated and compared to the properties of other previously studied thick-film materials.
This paper presents a development of a model of a set of multistage centrifugal electro pumps including two 4 stage stainless steel centrifugal pumps, each coupled to a 4 kW three-phase induction motor, connected to a hydraulic application running under two control strategies including constant speed and variable speed methods. Each pump provides 16 m3/hr flow rate and 58mwaterhead at BEP (Best Efficiency Point). Dynamicity of the model causes variations in all operational parameters of pumping system in any variation on consuming flow rate. Each electro pump has been driven with a variable frequency drive utilizing frequency control method for adjusting the rotational speed under a PID control regarding to match of pumping system operational point with the consumption point to save the energy. 83% energy saving is achieved by model in variable speed control strategy comparing to constant speed control strategy. MATLAB/SIMULINK software using ode45 solver and variable step size simulates this model.
This article describes the influence of thermal and dielectric properties of materials to properties of electrical insulating systems in high voltage electrical equipment. The aim of this experiment is to improve the thermal and dielectric properties of electrical insulating (composite) materials using micro fillers of aluminium oxide Al2O3. Supplement of fillers of aluminium oxide with better thermal conductivity to the electrical insulating systems can be modified to increase their thermal conductivity. Improving the thermal conductivity of electric insulation by addition of micro- or nanofillers and in the same time not adversely affecting the dielectric properties is the objective of the study. Paper is presenting the results measured on prepared samples. Improved thermal conductivity is compared with other dielectric properties as: dissipation factor temperature dependences, resistivity and dielectric spectroscopy. To determine the dielectric insulating properties the following characteristics were measured: tanδ versus temperature from 110°C to 150°C, absorption and resorption currents, volume resistivity. Furthermore, this article describes analysis of moisture and conductivity the material by dielectric spectroscopy.
High−frequency acoustic measurements supplemented by a modern optical method, Laser Optical Plankton Counter (LOPC), allowed us to perform a comparative analysis through the application of a mathematical model. We have studied the correspondence between measured and modelled echoes from zooplankton aggregations consisted mainly of two Calanus species. Data were collected from the upper 50 m water layer within the hydrographical frontal zone on the West Spitsbergen Shelf. The application of a “high− −pass” model of sound scattering by fluid−like particles to the distribution of zooplankton sizes measured by LOPC resulted mostly in very good agreement between the measured (420 kHz BioSonics) and modelled values, except for cases with very low zooplankton abundance or with occurrence of stronger scatterers ( e.g. macrozooplankton, fish). An acoustic model validated for the elastic parameters of zooplankton confirmed that particles smaller than 1 mm in diameter, although highly abundant, did not contribute significantly to the sound scattering process at a frequency of 420 kHz. The implementation of diverse complementary methods has great potential to obtain high spatial and temporal resolution in zooplankton distribution studies; however, their compatibility has to be tested first.
Although the gas insulated structures have a high degree of reliability, the unavoidable defects are primary reason of their failures. Partial discharge (PD) has been regarded as an effective indication for condition monitoring and diagnosis of gas insulated switchgears (GISs) to ensure their reliable and stable operation. Among various PD detection methods, the ultra-high frequency (UHF) technique has the advantages of on-line motoring and defect classification. In this paper, there are presented 7 types of artificial electrode systems fabricated for simulation of real insulation defects in gas insulated structures. A real-time measurement system was developed to acquire defect patterns in a form of phase-resolve partial discharge (PRPD) intensity graph, using a UHF sensor. Further, the discharge distribution and statistical characteristics were extracted for defect identification using a neural network algorithm. In addition, a conversion experiment was proposed by detecting the PD pulse simultaneously using a non-induction resistor and a UHF sensor. A relationship between the magnitude of UHF signal and the amplitude of apparent charge was established, which was used for evaluation of PD using the UHF sensor.