The investigation was carried out on forest soils collected from areas subject to variable pollution. The fraction of strontium was analyzed in soil samples from north-eastern Poland (Borki forest division), treated as a non-polluted region (natural background) and in soil samples from central (Rogów forest division) and south-western Poland (Świerklaniec forest division). The sequential extraction procedure was applied in this study to separate the fractions of strontium. Five fractions were analyzed in every genetic horizon according to the Tessier method. The concentration of strontium was also analyzed in the plants. Both results were compared in order to evaluate the mobility and bioavailability of the trace elements in the environment. The content, distribution and bioavailability of the strontium fractions were investigated with particular emphasis on the contaminated study sites. Total content of strontium in surface horizons depended on the localization. Among analysed fractions strontium, in organic soil horizons, regardless of localization, occurred predominantly in mobile fractions in all examined soils.
Antarctic krill carbohydrate content was followed during 1983—84 Eighth Polish Antarctic Expedition. The Admiralty Bay (King George Island) was th area of study. The following average values of three estimated fractions were obtained: 3.77 +- 1.51%, 0.47 +- 0.34% and 3.30 +- 1.33% for total, TCA-soluble and TCA-insoluble carbohydrates, respectively. Percentage contribution of the estimated fractions to dry weight varied seasonally (1.48—7.41%, 0.15—1.83%, and 1.28—6.28%, respectively). The carbohydrate content showed a clearcut cycle of changes over the calender year, with a minimum in autumn-winter and a maximum in spring-summer.
Changes in the amount of basic nitrogen fractions (total, protein and non-protein nitrogen) were studied in an annual cycle. Significant seasonal changes were noted, minima occurring in Antarctic winter and maxima during spring-summer season. These changes are due mainly to high fluctuations of water content in krill in the annual cycle.
Solanaceae plants have strong allelopathic potential, and therefore the action is confirmed through: a) bioassays with liquid or various solvent extracts and residues, b) fractionation, identification, and quantification of causative allelochemicals. Most assessments of allelopathy involve bioassays of plant or soil extracts, leachates, fractions, and residues which support seed germination and seedling growth in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Plant growth is also stimulated below the allelopathic threshold, however severe growth reductions may be observed above the threshold concentration depending on the sensitivity of the receiving species. Generally, seedling growth is more sensitive than germination, particularly root growth. Some approaches showed that field soil collected beneath donor plants significantly reduced or somewhat promoted the growth of the recipients plants. Petri dish bioassays with aqueous extracts of different parts of donor plants showed considerable phytotoxic activities in a concentration-dependent manner with leaf aqueous extracts being most dominant. Delayed seed germination and slow root growth attributable to the extracts may be baffled with diffusion effects on the rate of imbibition, delayed initiation of germination, and particularly cell elongation; the main factor that is responsible for affecting root growth before and after the tip penetrates the testa. Light and electron microscopy extract analysis at the ultrastructural level are correctly investigated. Several Solanaceae plants have allelopathic potential, and therefore the activities, kinds and quantity of allelopathic compounds differ depending on the plant species. The incorporation of allelopathic substances into agricultural management might scale back the development of pesticides and reduce environmental deterioration.
The problem of of the use of fly ash still constitutes a research and exploration area for scientists. This is due to the fact that, 6,000,000 Mg of coal combustion by-products (CCB) are storage on landfills yearly in Poland alone. One of the potential directions of using fly ash is to use it as a substrate in hydrothermal syntheses of mesoporous materials (synthetic zeolites). Zeolites are aluminosilicates with a spatial structure. Due to their specific structure they are characterized by a number of specific properties among others molecular-sieve, ion-exchange and catalytic that can be used in engineering and environmental protection. So far, the synthesis has been carried out using coal combustion by-products such as fly ash or microsphere. The article analyzes whether separation from the fly ash of the appropriate fraction (below 63 μm) will affect the formation of zeolite grains. The syntheses were carried out using class F fly ash and the fraction separated from it, which was obtained by sieving the ash through a 63 μm sieve. Chemical (XRF) and mineralogical (XRD, SEM-EDS) analyzes were carried out for substrates as well as the obtained reaction products. In the case of substrates, the analysis did not show any significant differences between the ash and the separated fraction. However, in products after synthesis (Na-X zeolite with a small amount of Na-P1 zeolite, and small amounts of quartz and unreacted aluminosilicate glass - mullite) higher aluminum and sodium contents were observed from the separated fraction, with a lower calcium and potassium content. A small proportion of illite was observed on the diffraction curve of the zeolite from the fraction. Observations of grain morphology showed no differences in formation. Based on the conducted analyzes, it can be stated that, considering the economics of the synthesis process, the separation of fine fractions from the fly ash does not affect the quality of the synthesis process.
The paper discusses the modelling of magnetic coupling in ignition coils by fractional differential equations. The use of fractional-order coupling allows us to consider the losses caused by the non-linearity of the ferromagnetic core of the ignition coil and obtain the waveform of the ignition coil’s secondary voltage closest to the values obtained experimentally.
Results of the studies for determining fractions of organic contaminants in a pretreated petrochemical wastewater flowing into a pilot Aerated Submerged Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactor (ASFBBR) are presented and discussed. The method of chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractionation consisted of physical tests and biological assays. It was found that the main part of the total COD in the petrochemical, pretreated wastewater was soluble organic substance with average value of 57.6%. The fractions of particulate and colloidal organic matter were found to be 31.8% and 10.6%, respectively. About 40% of COD in the influent was determined as readily biodegradable COD. The inert fraction of the soluble organic matter in the petrochemical wastewater constituted about 60% of the influent colloidal and soluble COD. Determination of degree of hydrolysis (DH) of the colloidal fraction of COD was also included in the paper. The estimated value of DH was about 62%. Values of the assayed COD fractions were compared with the same parameters obtained for municipal wastewater by other authors.
Samples of steam coal used in heat and power plants as well as densimetric fractions obtained on a laboratory scale by dense organic liquid separation have been examined. The contents of ash, mercury, chromium, cadmium, copper, nickel and lead have been determined in coal, in the light and medium fraction as well as in the refuse. The degree of removal of mineral matter and the examined heavy metals as well as the coal combustible parts yield have been determined. Examination of 5 coals revealed that it is possible to remove 41% of mercury and more than 35% of other heavy metals bound to mineral matter in coal.