Antarctic krill carbohydrate content was followed during 1983—84 Eighth Polish Antarctic Expedition. The Admiralty Bay (King George Island) was th area of study. The following average values of three estimated fractions were obtained: 3.77 +- 1.51%, 0.47 +- 0.34% and 3.30 +- 1.33% for total, TCA-soluble and TCA-insoluble carbohydrates, respectively. Percentage contribution of the estimated fractions to dry weight varied seasonally (1.48—7.41%, 0.15—1.83%, and 1.28—6.28%, respectively). The carbohydrate content showed a clearcut cycle of changes over the calender year, with a minimum in autumn-winter and a maximum in spring-summer.
Changes in the amount of basic nitrogen fractions (total, protein and non-protein nitrogen) were studied in an annual cycle. Significant seasonal changes were noted, minima occurring in Antarctic winter and maxima during spring-summer season. These changes are due mainly to high fluctuations of water content in krill in the annual cycle.
The problem of of the use of fly ash still constitutes a research and exploration area for scientists. This is due to the fact that, 6,000,000 Mg of coal combustion by-products (CCB) are storage on landfills yearly in Poland alone. One of the potential directions of using fly ash is to use it as a substrate in hydrothermal syntheses of mesoporous materials (synthetic zeolites). Zeolites are aluminosilicates with a spatial structure. Due to their specific structure they are characterized by a number of specific properties among others molecular-sieve, ion-exchange and catalytic that can be used in engineering and environmental protection. So far, the synthesis has been carried out using coal combustion by-products such as fly ash or microsphere. The article analyzes whether separation from the fly ash of the appropriate fraction (below 63 μm) will affect the formation of zeolite grains. The syntheses were carried out using class F fly ash and the fraction separated from it, which was obtained by sieving the ash through a 63 μm sieve. Chemical (XRF) and mineralogical (XRD, SEM-EDS) analyzes were carried out for substrates as well as the obtained reaction products. In the case of substrates, the analysis did not show any significant differences between the ash and the separated fraction. However, in products after synthesis (Na-X zeolite with a small amount of Na-P1 zeolite, and small amounts of quartz and unreacted aluminosilicate glass - mullite) higher aluminum and sodium contents were observed from the separated fraction, with a lower calcium and potassium content. A small proportion of illite was observed on the diffraction curve of the zeolite from the fraction. Observations of grain morphology showed no differences in formation. Based on the conducted analyzes, it can be stated that, considering the economics of the synthesis process, the separation of fine fractions from the fly ash does not affect the quality of the synthesis process.
The paper presents general solutions for fractional state-space equations. The analysis of the fractional electrical circuit in the transient state is described by the equation of the state and space equations. The results are presented for the voltage of a capacitor and current in a coil, for different alpha values. The Caputo and conformable fractional derivative definitions have been considered. At the end, the results have been obtained.
In this work, the design of current mode Fractional order filter using VDTAs (Voltage differencing trans-conductance amplifier) as an active element with grounded capacitors has been proposed. The approximate transfer functions of low and high pass filters of fractional order on the basis of the integer order transfer has been shown and the form of those functions of filters is also implemented using VDTA as an active building block. In this work, filters of the different sequence have been realized. The frequency domain simulation results of the proposed filters are obtained on Matlab and PSPICE with TSMC CMOS 180 nm technology parameters. Stability and sensitivity is also verified.
An analysis of a given electrical circuit using a fractional derivative. The statespace equation was developed. The dynamics of tensions described by Kirchhoff’s laws equations. The paper used the definition of the integral derivative Caputo and CDF conformable fractional definition. An electrical circuit solution using Caputo and CDF defini- tions for rectangular with zero initial conditions was developed. The results obtained using the Caputo and CDF definitions were compared. The solutions are shown for capacitor voltages, for fractional derivative orders of 0.6, 0.8, 1. The results were compared using graphs.
This paper presents a study of the Fourier transform method for parameter identification of a linear dynamic system in the frequency domain using fractional differential equations. Fundamental definitions of fractional differential equations are briefly outlined. The Fourier transform method of identification and their algorithms are generalized so that they include fractional derivatives and integrals.
A new method for computation of positive realizations of given transfer matrices of fractional linear continuous-time linear systems is proposed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of positive realizations of transfer matrices are given. A procedure for computation of the positive realizations is proposed and illustrated by examples.
In this paper, we establish variation of constant formulas for both Caputo and Riemann- Liouville fractional difference equations. The main technique is the Z -transform. As an application, we prove a lower bound on the separation between two different solutions of a class of nonlinear scalar fractional difference equations.
A new concept (notion) of the practical stability of positive fractional discrete-time linear systems is introduced. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the practical stability of the positive fractional systems are established. It is shown that the positive fractional systems are practically unstable if corresponding standard positive fractional systems are asymptotically unstable.
New frequency domain methods for stability analysis of linear continuous-time fractional order systems with delays of the retarded type are given. The methods are obtained by generalisation to the class of fractional order systems with delays of the Mikhailov stability criterion and the modified Mikhailov stability criterion known from the theory of natural order systems without and with delays. The study is illustrated by numerical examples of time-delay systems of commensurate and non-commensurate fractional orders.
The paper presents the stability problem of control systems composed of a fractional-order PI controller and a inertial plant of a fractional order with time delay. Simple and efficient computational method for determining stability regions in the controller and plant parameters space is given. Knowledge of these regions permits tuning of the fractional-order PI controller. The method proposed is based on the classical D-partition method.