The non linearities in the motor of an electrodynamic loudspeaker are still a discussed topic. This paper studies the influence of the force factor variation with the coil displacement on the harmonic and inter-modulation distortions. The real variation is described at least by a linear and a quadratic term. The effect of each term is studied separately, as they don't influence the same kind of frequencies, harmonics or inter-modulation. Both terms considered together result in enhanced effects. The dissymmetry of the Bl variation with regard to the coil centered position has also peculiar effects. This paper presents the method developed to calculate the power of each harmonic and inter-modulation frequency. This allows to compare the obtained values and thus the induced nonlinearities.
In this paper, the recent ice regime variations in the Kara Sea have been described and quantified based on the high-resolution remote sensing database from 2003 to 2017. In general, the Kara Sea is fully covered with thicker sea ice in winter, but sea ice cover is continuously declining during the summer. The year 2003 was the year with the most severe ice conditions, while 2012 and 2016 were the least severe. The extensive sea ice begins to break up before May and becomes completely frozen at the end of December again. The duration of ice melting is approximately twice than that of the freezing. Since 2007, the minimum ice coverage has always been below 5%, resulting in wide open-waters in summer. Furthermore, the relevant local driving factors of external atmospheric forcing on ice conditions have been quantitatively calculated and analyzed. Winter accumulated surface air temperature has been playing a primary role on the ice concentration and thickness condition in winter and determining ice coverage index in the following melt-freeze stage. Correlation coefficients between winter accumulated temperature and ice thickness anomaly index, the ice coverage anomaly index, duration of melt-freeze stage can approach -0.72, -0.83 and 0.80, respectively. In summer, meridional winds contribute closely to summer ice coverage anomaly index, with correlation coefficient exceeding 0.80 since 2007 and 0.90 since 2010.
Sound processing with loudspeaker driving depends critically on high quality electroacoustic transducers together with their relevant amplifiers. In this paper, the nonlinear effects of electrodynamic loudspeakers are investigated as regard the influence of the changes of their main descriptive parameters values. Indeed, while being operated nonlinear effects observed with loudspeakers are due to changes of such constitutive parameters. Regarding either current or voltage-drive, an original model based on Simulink R is presented, taking account of all the electrical and mechanical properties closely associated with nonlinear behaviours. Moreover, as such a Simulink R model may be combined with the PSpice R advanced software, the behaviour of both loudspeaker and amplifier can be exhaustively investigated and optimized. To this end, the amplifier is simulated thanks to the Orcad-Capture-PSpiceR software prior to match with the loudspeaker model with the so-called SLPS co-simulator. Then, values of the current flowing through the loudspeaker can be determined and plotted considering voltage controlling. Obviously in this case current-drive has not to be assessed. This way to proceed allows us to highlight any critical information especially due to the voice coil displacement, yielded velocity, and acceleration of the diaphragm. Indeed our approach testifies to the imperative necessity of mechanical measurements together with electrical ones. Then, considering a given amplifier-loudspeaker association with specific parameters changes of the latter, the entailed nonlinear distortion allows us to qualify and criticize the whole design. Such an original approach should be most valuable so as to match the best fitted amplifier with a given electrodynamic loudspeaker. Then non linear effects due to voltage and current-drive are compared highlighting the advantages of an apt currentcontroled policy.