The article proposes the use of a synthetic indicator in spatial research. In the construction of synthetic indicator, it assumes that the indicator should not only specify the synthetic value based of on empirical data, but also show its structure. The structure of the indicator should answer the question to what extent individual empirical measures influence to the value of a synthetic indicator. Using the rules of statistical grouping, four groups of voivodships with different economic potential were distinguished. Research shows that on the synthetic indicator of voivodships (in particular groups) were affected to a varying extent by the values of empirical variables: number of employees, value of fixed assets, value of gross domestic product, number of economic operators.