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Abstract

This paper presents mathematical modelling and numerical analysis to evaluate entropy generation analysis (EGA) by considering pressure drop and second law efficiency based on thermodynamics for forced convection heat transfer in rectangular duct of a solar air heater with wire as artificial roughness in the form of arc shape geometry on the absorber plate. The investigation includes evaluations of entropy generation, entropy generation number, Bejan number and irreversibilities of roughened as well as smooth absorber plate solar air heaters to compare the relative performances. Furthermore, effects of various roughness parameters and operating parameters on entropy generation have also been investigated. Entropy generation and irreversibilities (exergy destroyed) has its minimum value at relative roughness height of 0.0422 and relative angle of attack of 0.33, which leads to the maximum exergetic efficiency. Entropy generation and exergy based analyses can be adopted for the evaluation of the overall performance of solar air heaters.
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Abstract

Second law analysis (entropy generation) for the steady two-dimensional laminar forced convection flow, heat and mass transfer of an incompressible viscous fluid past a nonlinearly stretching porous (permeable) wedge is numerically studied. The effects of viscous dissipation, temperature jump, and first-order chemical reaction on the flow over the wedge are also considered. The governing boundary layer equations for mass, momentum, energy and concentration are transformed using suitable similarity transformations to three nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Then, the ODEs are solved by using a Keller’s box algorithm. The effects of various controlling parameters such as wedge angle parameter, velocity ratio parameter, suction/injection parameter, Prandtl number, Eckert number, temperature jump parameter, Schmidt number, and reaction rate parameter on dimensionless velocity, temperature, concentration, entropy generation number, and Bejan number are shown in graphs and analyzed. The results reveal that the entropy generation number increases with the increase of wedge angle parameter, while it decreases with the increase of velocity ratio parameter. Also, in order to validate the obtained numerical results of the present work, comparisons are made with the available results in the literature as special cases, and the results are found to be in a very good agreement.
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Abstract

Correct incipient identification of an analog circuit fault is conducive to the health of the analog circuit, yet very difficult. In this paper, a novel approach to analog circuit incipient fault identification is presented. Time responses are acquired by sampling outputs of the circuits under test, and then the responses are decomposed by the wavelet transform in order to generate energy features. Afterwards, lower-dimensional features are produced through the kernel entropy component analysis as samples for training and testing a one-against-one least squares support vector machine. Simulations of the incipient fault diagnosis for a Sallen-Key band-pass filter and a two-stage four-op-amp bi-quad low-pass filter demonstrate the diagnosing procedure of the proposed approach, and also reveal that the proposed approach has higher diagnosis accuracy than the referenced methods.
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