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Abstract

The primary aim of this paper was to assess the development of prosumer energy sector in Poland. In the first point, the basic notions connected with prosumer energy (micro-installation, prosumer) were discussed on the basis of Law of Renewable Energy Sources of February 20, 2015 (Journal of Laws, item 478, as amended) and the main aspects of the European Union energy policy where presented in the context of the development of the prosumer energy sector. In this part of the study, numerous benefits for the Polish economy and consumers of electrical energy, connected with the expansion of prosumer energy sector, were presented. On the other hand, many obstacles which stall this sector in Poland were noticed. In the second point the most important regulations from the Law of Renewable Energy Sources of February 20, 2015 were analyzed (In the second point the most important regulations from the Law of Renewable Energy Sources of February 20, 2015 (hereinafter: the RES act) were analyzed). On the basis of this legal act, the so called “rebate system”, which is currently used in Poland to support prosumers of electrical energy, was described. Moreover, many legal and administrative simplifications implemented by the RES act were indicated. The analytical approach to the RES Act in this study resulted in the detection of many regulations in this legal act which may have an adverse impact on the development of the prosumer energy sector in Poland. In the third point, programs co-financed by the Polish government or the European Union, which financially support the purchase and installation of energy technologies using RES, were described. Statistical data connected with the prosumer energy sector in Poland was presented in the fourth point of this paper. On the basis thereof, the authors attempted to find the correlation between the number of prosumers and the share of the amount of electrical energy from renewable energy sources in gross electrical energy consumption. In the fifth point issues connected with energy technologies used in the Polish prosumer energy sector were discussed. Moreover, this point focuses on the great popularity of photovoltaic modules among Polish prosumers and results in the reluctance of Polish prosumers to install wind microturbines and small hydroelectric power plants.
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Abstract

This paper presents the main dilemma of development of the Polish energy sector on the 20th anniversary of the first liberalization directive of the European Union, which created the energy market. The situation in the Polish energy sector based on fossil fuels, its transformation into lower emission one is closely connected to the process of restructuring and further development of the mining sector. On the other hand, we are witnessing the development of RES, household installations producing electricity with storage and the electrification of public transport. The investments in new, large scale fossil fuel fired power plants are very expensive and not economically proven when electricity prices are low. Until the new direction of investment in energy sector will be decided, the option of the lasting of the operating existing power units seems to be a good proposal. Is the thesis: “The energy security of Poland should be fully based on indigenous sources, generation and distribution assets, delivering electricity to end users. Ensuring competitive energy prices to the economy and households, the market should be fully open to producers and consumers, including chip electricity arising from the European single market” the right assumption for the Polish energy policy?
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