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Number of results: 5
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Abstract

The primary aim of this paper was to assess the development of prosumer energy sector in Poland. In the first point, the basic notions connected with prosumer energy (micro-installation, prosumer) were discussed on the basis of Law of Renewable Energy Sources of February 20, 2015 (Journal of Laws, item 478, as amended) and the main aspects of the European Union energy policy where presented in the context of the development of the prosumer energy sector. In this part of the study, numerous benefits for the Polish economy and consumers of electrical energy, connected with the expansion of prosumer energy sector, were presented. On the other hand, many obstacles which stall this sector in Poland were noticed. In the second point the most important regulations from the Law of Renewable Energy Sources of February 20, 2015 were analyzed (In the second point the most important regulations from the Law of Renewable Energy Sources of February 20, 2015 (hereinafter: the RES act) were analyzed). On the basis of this legal act, the so called “rebate system”, which is currently used in Poland to support prosumers of electrical energy, was described. Moreover, many legal and administrative simplifications implemented by the RES act were indicated. The analytical approach to the RES Act in this study resulted in the detection of many regulations in this legal act which may have an adverse impact on the development of the prosumer energy sector in Poland. In the third point, programs co-financed by the Polish government or the European Union, which financially support the purchase and installation of energy technologies using RES, were described. Statistical data connected with the prosumer energy sector in Poland was presented in the fourth point of this paper. On the basis thereof, the authors attempted to find the correlation between the number of prosumers and the share of the amount of electrical energy from renewable energy sources in gross electrical energy consumption. In the fifth point issues connected with energy technologies used in the Polish prosumer energy sector were discussed. Moreover, this point focuses on the great popularity of photovoltaic modules among Polish prosumers and results in the reluctance of Polish prosumers to install wind microturbines and small hydroelectric power plants.
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Abstract

This paper presents the main dilemma of development of the Polish energy sector on the 20th anniversary of the first liberalization directive of the European Union, which created the energy market. The situation in the Polish energy sector based on fossil fuels, its transformation into lower emission one is closely connected to the process of restructuring and further development of the mining sector. On the other hand, we are witnessing the development of RES, household installations producing electricity with storage and the electrification of public transport. The investments in new, large scale fossil fuel fired power plants are very expensive and not economically proven when electricity prices are low. Until the new direction of investment in energy sector will be decided, the option of the lasting of the operating existing power units seems to be a good proposal. Is the thesis: “The energy security of Poland should be fully based on indigenous sources, generation and distribution assets, delivering electricity to end users. Ensuring competitive energy prices to the economy and households, the market should be fully open to producers and consumers, including chip electricity arising from the European single market” the right assumption for the Polish energy policy?
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Abstract

This article, as far as possible based on the available literature, empirical measurements, and data from mesoscale models describes and compares expected wind conditions within the Baltic Sea area. This article refers to aspects related to the design and assessment of wind farm wind resources, based on the author’s previous experience related to onshore wind energy. The consecutive chapters of this publication are going to describe the present state and the presumptions relating to the development of wind energy within the Baltic Sea area. Subsequently, the potential of the sea was assessed using mesoscale models and empirical data from the Fino 2 mast that is located approximately 200 kilometers away from the majority of areas indicated in the Polish marine spatial development plan draft of Poland for offshore wind farm development (Maritime Office in Gdynia 2018). In the chapter describing mesoscale models, the author focused his attention on the GEOS5.12.4 model as the source of Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application 2 data, also known as MERRA2 (Administration National Aeronautics and Space Agency, 28), which, starting from February 2016, replaced MERRA data (Thogersen et al. 2016) and have gained a wide scope of applications in the assessment of pre-investment and operational productivity due to a remarkable level of correlation with in-situ data. Model-specific data has been obtained for eight locations, which largely overlap with the locations of the currently existing offshore wind farms within the Baltic Sea area. A significant part of this publication is going to be devoted to the description of the previously mentioned Fino 2 mast and to the analysis of data recorded until the end of 2014 by using the said mast (Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency 2018). The analysis has been carried out by means using scripts made in the VBA programming language, making it easier to work with large chunks of data. Measurements from the Fino 2 mast, together with long-term mesoscale model-specific measurements can be used, to some extent, for the preliminary assessment of wind farm energy yield in the areas designated for the development of renewable energy in the Polish exclusive maritime economic zone (Maritime Office in Gdynia 2018). In the final part of this article, pieces of information on the forecasted Baltic Sea wind conditions, especially within the exclusive economic zone of Poland, are going to be summarized. A major focus is going to be put on the differences between offshore and onshore wind energy sources, as well as on further aspects, which should be examined in order to optimize the offshore wind power development.
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Abstract

The implementation of micro scale combined heat and power systems is one of the ways to improve the energy security of consumers. In fact, there are many available large and medium scale cogeneration units, which operate according to the Rankine Cycle. Due to European Union demands in the field of using renewable energy sources and increasing energy efficiency result in the importance of additionally developing systems dedicated for use in residential buildings, farms, schools and other facilities. This paper shows the concept of introducing thermoelectric generators into typical wood stoves: steel plate wood stoves and accumulative wood stoves. Electricity generated in thermoelectric generators (there were studies on both three market available units and a prototypical unit developed by the authors) may be firstly consumed by the system (to power controller, actuators, fans, pumps, etc.). Additional power (if available) may be stored in batteries and then used to power home appliances (light, small electronics and others). It should be noted that commercially available thermoelectric generators are not matched for domestic heating devices – the main problems are connected with an insufficient heat flux transmitted from the stove to the hot side of the generator (caused e.g. by the non -homogeneous temperature distribution of the surface and bad contact between the stove and the generator) and inefficient cooling. To ensure the high efficiency of micro cogeneration systems, developing a dedicated construction both of the generator and the heat source is necessary.
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Abstract

Popularyzacja i rozwój odnawialnych źródła energii są głównymi celami realizowanej obecnie europejskiej oraz polskiej polityki energetycznej. Wzrost liczby niskoemisyjnych instalacji, korzystających z alternatywnych nośników energii ma nie tylko zagwarantować zwiększenie poziomu dywersyfikacji źródeł energii, lecz również zapewnić wysoki poziom bezpieczeństwa energetycznego. Dzięki temu możliwe będzie również zwiększenie konkurencyjności na rynku energii oraz efektywności energetycznej, a dodatkowo – ograniczenie szkodliwego oddziaływania sektora energetyki na stan środowiska przyrodniczego. Coraz większy popyt na energię elektryczną, jak i wzrastająca świadomość ekologiczna społeczeństwa przyczyniają się do rozwoju instalacji wykorzystujących odnawialne źródła energii (OZE), w tym systemów fotowoltaicznych i siłowni wiatrowych. Jednakże przyłączanie alternatywnych jednostek wytwórczych do krajowego systemu elektroenergetycznego jest często procesem skomplikowanym, długotrwałym, narażonym na wiele utrudnień. Jedną z najczęściej spotykanych barier są niejasne zapisy prawne i administracyjne, które, także ze względu na swoją niestabilność, stawiają inwestorów z branży OZE w niepewnym położeniu. Brak odpowiednich instrumentów finansowych powoduje, że właściciele, zwłaszcza tych większych instalacji, muszą realizować swoje projekty wykorzystując własne nakłady pieniężne, co jest często czynnikiem zniechęcającym do inwestowania w tego rodzaju instalacje. Ponadto nienajlepszy stan techniczny majątku sieciowego oraz bariery urbanistyczne uniemożliwiają zapewnienie bezpieczeństwa przesyłu energii elektrycznej zwłaszcza na duże odległości od Głównego Punktu Zasilającego (GPZ). W niniejszym artykule przybliżono problemy, z jakimi zmagają się polscy inwestorzy, chcący przyłączyć instalację OZE do systemu elektroenergetycznego. Analizę przeprowadzono na podstawie przyłączeń instalacji fotowoltaicznych oraz elektrowni wiatrowych do sieci energetycznej.
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