The aim of this paper is to look at the quantitative dimension of public space resources in Polish cities, a comparative analysis of these resources, determining the share of public space in the urban spatial structure and referring this structure to European cities. The concept of ‘public space resources’ has been introduced, and is defined as those areas in the city that fulfill or can fulfill the functions of public space. This concept, and then the proposal of its operationalization, aimed to draw attention to the spatial and physical aspects of public space, which would allow to broaden and supplement social approaches in the study of public space. The quantitative approach to public space proposed in the paper also enabled a comparative research to assess the role of public space in the structure of Polish cities in a more objective manner and refer it to European cities.
This paper brings up elementary problems related to the creation of friendly public spaces in residential complexes as the main places of social integration. Contemporary social transformations are reflected in a new, intensified usage of public spaces which – offering more and more possibilities of satisfying human needs in the field of social contact, knowledge, recreation, stimulation etc. – provoke people and their activities to transfer “life” from a private space to a public space.
Commercial functions are very important to the process of urban revitalization. Various commercial forms of trade, such as markets, marketplaces, cloth halls have enriched the public spaces of cities over the centuries. Over the last 25 years of the free market in Poland, we have observed deformations within the urban structure caused by new types of commercial functions. The attractive functions of urban malls and shopping centers, which are usually placed inside, cause the degradation he streets located outside. Shopping centers, spread within the city and isolated by parking areas from pedestrian networks, contribute to the growth of inner peripheries. The fluctuations of the global economy should lead us however, to the delimitation of commercial functions, especially the largest ones. The proper relations between these commercial areas and the beautiful landscape of the city can be used as an element of building the city's image. Ventures within the historical city centers require the development of new instruments which would allow us to protect existing values.
The subject of this paper is the study of the specificity of the transformation of the urban public spaces of the Western world and the problem of the multi form nature of this phenomenon. The Author uses such concepts as that of the "hybrid" and of "hybridization" borrowed from the field of natural sciences and explains the reasons for their introduction within this specific scope of research in a broad manner.
The article is an attempt to collate and present the existing works of Polish geographers who focused on public space in cities, taking two main theoretical and methodological approaches – objective and subjective – under consideration. The article discusses different definitions of the analysed term in an interdisciplinary context as well as indicates main aspects and research directions in geographical studies along with the scholars representing them. Moreover, the authors make an attempt to evaluate the existing state of the art and try to set future perspectives for geographical studies on public space in cities. The article finishes with the authors’ conclusions regarding the necessity to continue the research on public space and the role Polish geographers shall play in it.
The article is an attempt to analyze the spatio-pedagogical discourse of the German social pedagogy. It represents only a fragment of reflection on the turns in paradigm of place/ space (spatial turn), as pedagogical terms. & e authors seek to answer the question what is the space and place, and what concepts in the field of reflection on the place/space run in the German social pedagogy. The text introduces, inter alia, the relational concept of space developed by Martina Löw, duality of space and the concept of spacing. Active creation of urban space, the spatial dimension of the relationship and its dynamics are subjected to discussion. The article presents critical approach to the notion of transdisciplinary space, and space-oriented social work. Finally, it provides the incentive for in-depth, international analyzes of spatio-pedagogical theories.
The main objective of the article is an attempt to indicate factors which determine the image of a city as a good place to live as well as to reveal the ways in which they affect the citizens’ quality of life. In order to do so, the author selected the city of Gdynia which is perceived as the best city to live in by its citizens. Among the most important factors determining the quality of life in general there are: the scale of a city, local identity, public spaces, symbolic places, housing environment, perception of a place, personal satisfaction of a place where a particular person lives, urban policies as well as presence and activeness of local leaders. The article presents the results of a social study carried out by the author herself during two periods of time – in 2004 and 2014 as well as the results of the Social Diagnosis 2015.
The article concerns problems with shaping contemporary housing estates. By analyzing housing structures designed in recent years, the aim was to demonstrate the importance of creating the continuity of public spaces in order to achieve places seen as attractive and presenting features of high quality urban space. Essential for the research is the question about the conditions which should be fulfi lled when creating the ideal residential place which then leads to a series of answers. These included indicating a good location with functional and aesthetic urban/architectural solutions. Environmental issues are important as well. Regardless of whether it is a multi-family dwelling or a single family house, a good neighborhood and its location in a well-connected place with necessary basic services within walking range are important. It is also signifi cant how the public space was shaped and whether a natural network was created. Due to factors such as the specifi city of the structure’s location in the city and diff erent surfaces of designed estates, as well as the variety of residential buildings being constructed, it is often diffi cult to assess them unambiguously. Importantly, this assessment also includes social and economic aspects as well as technical issues. However, by using multi-directional research it can be noted that the forms of public spaces within housing complexes play an important role in the creation of high-quality structures, perceived as attractive not only by the residents.
In this paper a small time local controllability, naturally defined in a configuration space, is transferred into a task-space. It was given its analytical characterization and practical implications. A special attention was put on singular configurations. Theoretical considerations were illustrated with two calculation examples. An extensive comparison of the proposed construction with the controllability defined in an endogenous configuration space approach was presented pointing out to their advantages and disadvantages.
The concept of place has been present in human geography for almost half a century. The human geographers looked for the answer about genesis of place category in different sociological or psychological aspects with the basis of space dimension. In last two decades a few of them referred that idea to communication processes. Inspired by the views expressed by the latter group of scientists, we are asking: how is creating a place? We put forward thesis that a special type of place making is social communication that works continuously on the principle of the palimpsest of overlapping meanings through messages arising in several dimensions. Our assumption is that every place is creating (overwriting) a social subject – an individual or a group, that will build communication in three dimensions: within a space/place (W), about a space/place (A), and/or between people and a space/place (B).
The article describes the relationship between the local community and the primary school considered as “place” within the meaning derived from the book by yi-Fu Tuan “Space and place: The perspective of experience”. The article compares the cases of two schools in the city of bielsko-biała (the city has a population of 175 thousands inhabitants). One school is overcrowded, yet its future existence has been secured. The second school, however, was first transferred to another location and it eventually went into liquidation in 2012. The article demonstrates then underlying reasons and consequences of losing the school as place. Moreover, it indicates potential problems emerging in such cases altogether with a set of possible solutions.
The Author tries to “think out of the box”, presenting “Sponsalia ex hoc mundo” (“Hand fastening out of this world”). The title reflects the view that the outer space sciences and the sea sciences are analytically separable, but practically interlinked. It might be observed in the context of space technology and satellite technics, a new system of management and government, as well as a new system of law and policy. Nowadays, the outer space infrastructure (the use of artificial Earth satellites for Direct Television Broadcasting, communications, remote sensing, navigation, military missiles) affects infrastructure of our Planet, including maritime infrastructure. There is, therefore, the need for a new face of integrated system of science and practice.
The essay critically approaches the current state and directions of changes in the university education. We see the critical point in the unconditioned endorsement by the university of the market values of intense competitiveness of global economy and the cult of the pro-market education which is its inevitable result. We would like to argue that although the university must respect economic conditions and limitations, nevertheless we fear that the ongoing process of corporatization of the university with its management strategies such as cutting costs, scanning environments for competitive purposes, re-engineering highly competitive efficiency criteria for the staff will bring about a neglect of the humanist values rooted in intellectual and social sensibility and hence undermine the social mission of the university which, apart from professional skills and research, must cultivate intellectual pluralism by providing space for intelligent conversation, sharing critical views of the present state of things thus fostering social criticism and the spirit of responsible dissent.
Multidimensional, variety of saving memories ways in landscape is visible in creation of commemorative spaces. These meaning is strictly connected with the most important events and persons in history of the country. Authors of article in their research are concentrated on commemorative space with monuments example in Poland and the world presence in landscape design meaning. They are announced by landscape analysis methods to recognition of structure, meaning and phenomena of chosen objects in genius loci categories. In Study of Conditions and Directions of Space Development Capital City of Warsaw is found the record that “commemorative resource” is not enough examined and protected. The aim of elaboration is indication of tendencies in aspects of location, space relations and meanings of memory places.
The urban form creates the city structure, whose spatial values not only shape the functionality of the city, but also its identity, whose the most important determinant is the urban tissue. The subject of the study is the analysis of selected historical areas of Cracow in the scope of composition and readability of their urban structure. The analysis focuses on the identification of the most important aspects of spatial renewal processes of these spaces. These processes aimed at strengthening their potential as local centres, that can become a factor stimulating the development of the individual urban units. The increase in the attractiveness and quality of public spaces will positively affect the degree of their perception by the inhabitants and the social relations taking place in them. This in turn, influences the degree of the social involvement in development processes and the creation of more or less spontaneous, bottom-up activities.
Formation the local identity in the “thematic” Rural Renewal, The article aims to determine the main conditions for the development of rural thematic areas in the context of Rural Renewal. Against this background, the authors attempt to explain the mechanisms governing the discussed process and their effects. In view of the above, the focus was on presenting mechanisms for the development of processes that lead to the flowering of this idea (an anatomy of success – the case of the village of Sierakowo Sławieńskie) and those that slow down or completely limit this development (anatomy of failure – the case of the village of Lubcza).
The author presents changes which took place in the 3 eld of ideas of presenting art to the city audience at the end of the twentieth century. She draws attention to the importance of a movement of so-called “new museology”, which revised the museum practitioners’ attitudes towards art viewers. She presents taken from Poland and Europe practices of realizing artistic practices outside exhibition halls, directly in the public space, with immediate access to the viewer, who also is invited to participate in a process of creation of the art work together with the artist. She indicates a consequence of this practice, which is a formation of a so-called “new audience” – conscious of their expectations towards cultural institutions. In the end, the author mentions a research project on the phenomenon of the “new audience” initiated in the framework of the international project “Artecitya”.
In the Act on Revitalization of 9 October 2015, for the first time in Poland, the legal act introduced the necessity to apply the principles of universal design (Article 3 paragraph 2 point 3). The practice of investment processes in crisis areas shows that the requirements set out in the Act are not properly implemented. Regeneration processes require attention to improve the quality of life of residents. The article presents issues related to the implementation of universal design principles during revitalization processes. There is a noticeable lack of interest in this issue despite the fact that it is one of the three tasks set before local governments in the Revitalization Act, after social participation and support for people at risk of exclusion in the area of housing. The reasons for this state should be seen in a small knowledge of the issue, deficiencies in the educational process of designers and poor control on the part of local governments and central authorities. This is due to conservation conditions, which often misinterpret the right to protect cultural heritage. The self-government as its own task should guarantee the possibility of using the positive effects of the revitalization process, in particular the implementation of residents’ rights to an independent and dignifi ed life, which is required by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
In the paper author discusses problems related to the leading role of architectural structures, as a part of the creating process within contemporary urban space. Architectural objects establish a continuous dialogue not only with their surrounding space, but also between each other. In this relation, the first plan comes with two factors, determining all spatial and functional solutions: the place in which a given project is localized and the time in which the urban designer came to the architect to create his plan. Based on the analysis of own projects and urban and architectural realizations, the author proves that the architectural dialogue in urban space must be respected in the context of the place and the time, but also in the creators moral responsibility. This responsibility is defined by consequences of design decisions not only for the urban space itself, but above all, for people and their coexistence with the space. For designers it reveals a necessity to comply principles of ethics and professing the value system in order to taking care of the urban space not only three-dimensional, but also “existential”.
Fractal analysis is one of the rapidly evolving branches of mathematics and finds its application in different analyses such as pore space description. It constitutes a new approach to the issue of their natural irregularity and roughness. To be properly applied, it should be encompassed by an error estimation. The article presents and verifies uncertainties along with imperfections connected with image analysis and expands on the possible ways of their correction. One of key aspects of such research is finding both appropriate place and the number of photos to take. A coarse- grained sandstone thin section was photographed and then pictures were combined into one, bigger image. Fractal parameters distributions show their change and suggest that the accurately gathered group of photos include both highly and less porous regions. Their amount should be representative and adequate to the sample. The resolution influence on the fractal dimension and lacunarity values was examined. For SEM limestone images obtained using backscattered electrons, magnification in the range of 120x to 2000x was used. Additionally, a single pore was examined. The acquired results point to the fact that the values of fractal dimension are similar to a wide range of magnifications, while lacunarity changes each time. This is connected with changing homogeneity of the image. The article also undertakes a problem of determining fractal parameters spatial distribution based on binarization. The available methods assume that it is carried out after or before the image division into rectangles to create fractal dimension and lacunarity values for interpolation. An individual binarization, although time consuming, provides better results that resemble reality to a closer degree. It is not possible to define a single, correct methodology of error elimination. A set of hints has been presented that can improve results of further image analysis of pore space.
Participatory budgeting has become an important element of empowerment of the residents in the process of spatial planning in Polish cities. The citizens gained the right and a concrete tool to implement their ideas on how to change the city spaces. Many of the projects of participatory budgeting are the results of serious negligence in basic infrastructure in the cities. On the other hand, some of them are an expression of great ingenuity and innovative approach of the citizens to the modernization and arrangements in urban spaces. The civic projects improve quality of life and increase the utility value of public spaces. The main aim of the paper is to review and classify tasks changing public spaces under the formula of participatory budgeting. The research in a form of diagnosis enables to present the directions of participatory budgeting. It helps to monitor and evaluate the social impacts in the process of city space transformations. The subject of analysis are participatory budgets in Łódź and Katowice based on editions in 2015/2016 and 2016/2017.
The post-mining areas due to the difficulties of those, often associated with expensive activities, usually take the form of wasteland. In contrast, unavailable, unused and alien areas the mentality of residents, are identified with empty space. The purpose of the authors was to answer the question: Are post-mining areas becoming empty spaces? Her research basis was changes in the functioning of post-mining areas and empty spaces in Katowice – a city with a long-standing mining tradition. Using GIS tools, a spatial analysis was carried out to determine the empty spaces functions and the perceiving of the post-mining areas by residents or users of a given district nearby.
In the 20th century toponymy of the Kłodzko Land underwent serious changes, which with no doubt can be called a revolution. After 1945 and the displacement of the German population all the pre-war names were substituted with Polish ones, which, unfortunately, only rarely were connected with the former tradition, in some cases as old as the middle ages. Most of new names were introduced by a special commission whose main aim was to mark that the new areas gained by Poland after the World War II (the so called Regained Territories) were successfully taken into possession. However, many places and objects (some mountain tops, rock formations, springs, parts of villages) did not receive a name. In the next decades, new local communities started to accustom the mountainous landscape and independently gave names to various nameless (in Polish) places. Unfortunately, due to the depopulation of rural areas in the Kłodzko Land and other formal reasons, the process was quite slow. The main aim of the paper is not only to analyse those changes, but also to compare the numbers of names in chosen moments of the 20th century. For this purpose three types of maps in 1 : 25 000 scale were used: pre-war (German) “Meßtischblatt”, a Polish topographic map representing the situation at the beginning of the 1970s and, finally, the “Army topographic map” from the end of the 20th century. On the first map 531 geographical names were marked, on the second — only 225, and on the third — 277, which is still approximately half of the number before 1945.
The paper gives an evidence that construction of contemporary objects at the interface with the historic urban space, may be a way to renew and revitalize areas which require it. Such action may be a strong and valuable catalyst for the functional and visual transformation of a given fragment of urban space. It can also contribute to the increase of social activity within it. Research shows that public facilities from the turn of the 20th and 21st century, which were built using innovative architectural technologies and constructional solutions, are the buildings which provide great opportunities to contrast with historical architecture. This can be achieved due to their significant scale and rank in the urban space. The analyzes show that design based on the principle of contrast is the right solution for the degraded historic urban space. The replenishment of the old tissue should be carried out with the emphasis on the identity of the times in which we live, without creating architecture which could literally imitate historical objects or compete with them. Because of this contrast and diversity, new fragments of the city can become a counterweight or a valuable background to the existing historical tissue. Contemporary buildings located in a historical context are not only enhancing the values of cultural heritage but can also become a grateful element of the urban space and a strong accent of modernity and innovation in the city.
The presence of art in historic representative buildings is widespread and common. It is not surprising, therefore, that it is a frequent tool used in the transformation processes of these structures. A surprise, however, may be a situation where, instead of the art from the period of the creation of a given monument, the contemporary, multimedia or engaging the viewer cultural activities occur. Therefore, the key questions are the role of such forms of intervention in the historical representative interiors and the possibility of co-existing old and new. It is not without significance for objects under conservator’s protection that there are special requirements that the intervention must fulfill to be installed. The subject of considerations in this work are case studies of the application of contemporary multimedia art in the representative spaces of historical objects. The purpose of the article is to examine types of such artistic interventions resulting from the relationship between a work of art and exhibition space and their mutual influence.