Background: The older population is very heterogeneous with regard to the co-morbidity and the physical reserve. This can result in unacceptably high postoperative complications rates. Th erefore, the aim of the study was to review the literature regarding the outcomes of older patients treated for pancreatic cancer, including the usage of minimal invasive techniques. Methodology: A review of the literature was carried out including studies on pancreatic cancer in older patients published between 2011 and 2016. Results: Seventeen retrospective studies were included. The total number of patients was 9981 with the age range of 65 years and more. Studies on surgical treatment alone (1.4%), neoadjuvant/adjuvant treatment with or without surgery (89.4%) and palliative therapy (9.2%) were assessed separately. Appropriate comparison was diffi cult due to the retrospective character and heterogeneity of the study population. Mortality was low, yet there was a great diff erence in morbidity ranging from some percent to even 100% of the study population. Long-term results were poor. Conclusions: The functional status, not the chronological age alone, is the factor limiting therapeutic options in older patients with pancreatic cancer.
The fact that postmodern pedagogy strongly encourages researchers to get involved in the process of understanding, analyzing and creating meanings is surely one of its virtues. In this context, the works of the Elderly Gentlemen's Cabaret appear to be quite an extraordinary phenomenon. They allow us to rediscover the somewhat forgotten ways of perceiving culture as a source of understanding, helping us live our lives more consciously. A discrete theatre pedagogy, allowing us to make ourselves more familiar with the works of Przybora and Wasowski, is a great material for awakening a personal interest, as well as an inspiration and a working method in sensitive education.
A questionnaire survey was conducted in the residential quarters of Guangzhou, for which 582 elderly people over 60 years old were randomly recruited. The hearing impairment of the participants was evaluated using the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE), The participants’ subjective responses to the acoustical environment of their living place and the impact of the living acoustical environment (LAE) on the participants were investigated. The results show that the participants with a low HHIE score and no hearing impairment evaluated their LAE more favourably, and they considered that the effect of the LAE on their daily life was weak. However, those with a high HHIE score and severe hearing impairment evaluated their LAE poorly, and considered its effect on their daily lives to be significant. For the elderly, the worse the hearing is, the higher their demand for a better LAE. Traffic, construction, residential quarters, and noise from next door or upstairs neighbours were the main noise sources in the elderly’s living places, and traffic noise, construction noise, and noise from next door and upstairs were the most influential sources. 28.9% of the respondents had trouble hearing what their family said in their living place. The elderly without hearing impairment considered that continuous noise was the main reason that they could not hear what their family said in their living place, while those with hearing impairment believed that their own hearing problem was a contributing factor.