Extraction of natural resources such as shale gas can disrupt the internal structure of rock, leading to the release of vast amounts of energy in the form of earthquakes. Is the risk of such human-induced quakes high in Poland? Scientists from the PAS Institute of Geophysics are trying to find the answer.
Messina in the stories of Polish travelers over the course of centuries: the double face of the city – The article presents Messina’s ‘verbal postcards’ left by Polish participants in the Grand Tour and travelers who visited Sicily in later times. Travelers whose accounts are widely known, such as Anonymous (1595), Michał Borch, Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, Chrystian Kamsetzer (XVIII c.), Zygmunt Krasiński (nineteenth century), but also less well-known ones such as writer Zofia Sokołowska, arriving in Sicily in the tragic year of the earthquake (1908), left descriptions from their stays in Messina about the emotional charge they felt, one closely related to the historical moment in which they arrived on the island. This will therefore be a thorough analysis of a fragment of the Sicilian journey concerning Messina left by some Polish travelers, taking into account their professions, areas of interest and the period in which they were in Sicily.
The paper presents an estimation of liquefaction susceptibility of some soils from the coast of the Marmara Sea, which was heavily striken by the Kocaeli earthquake in 1999. Firstly, the results of field investigations are summarized. Then, the results of laboratory investigations of physical and mechanical properties of the soils collated from the sites investigated are presented. The mechanical properties relate to the compaction/liquefaction model of saturated soils. This model is briefly outlined, then respective experimental procedures dealing with its calibration described, and values of material parameters listed. Liquefaction potential of investigated soils is analysed using standard procedures, based on the grain size distribution curves and SPTs. Finally, the simulation of pore-pressure generation and onset of liquefaction of Turkish soils is carried out, using the compaction/liquefaction model. Discussion of some standard empirical procedures of estimation of liquefaction potential of saturated soils, conducted from the analytical point of view, is also presented.