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Number of results: 12
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Keywords feral dogs

Abstract

We talk to Prof. Wiesław Bogdanowicz from the PAS Institute of Zoology about the origins, abilities and intelligence of feral dogs.
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to establish reference values for 2D and M-mode measurements in Dachshunds. Basic echocardiographic data, including M-mode, 2D and spectral Doppler measurements, was collected, analyzed and compared between 41 healthy Dachshunds and 50 other healthy dogs of similar weight. Echocardiographic reference intervals were prepared for Dachshunds. Dachshunds had a smaller left ventricular diameter in diastole and systole and a thicker septum than other dog breeds. Male Dachshunds had larger diastolic and systolic left ventricular diameter than females. Reference intervals for 2D and M-mode measurements in healthy Dachshunds differ from other dogs of similar weight and should be used for this breed to assess chamber enlargement.
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Abstract

Several human studies have reported that capsaicin has anti-pruritic effects. Moreover, sever- al concentrations of topical capsaicin have been used to alleviate itch. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-pruritic effect of capsaicin against histamine-induced pruritus compared with that of topical steroid or vehicle in 15 healthy beagles. Fifteen dogs were divided into three groups (n = 5 each), and treated topically with one of the following on the left side of the neck: capsaicin, positive control (steroid), or negative control (vehicle). Each treatment was performed twice daily for 8 days. All dogs were injected with histamine intradermally before treatment and on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th days of the treatment to evoke itch. Pruritus, wheal, and erythema intensity were assessed at each evaluation; cutaneous temperature was also recorded. On the final day, skin biopsy was conducted for histopathological evaluation for all dogs. The severity of pruritus was lesser in the capsaicin-treated group compared with the negative control group on day 8 (p<0.05). In the capsaicin and steroid groups, wheal size, erythema index, and cutaneous temperature also decreased compared with pretreatment. Histopathological evaluation showed that the capsaicin-treated group had a higher number of inflammatory cells in the dermis com- pared to the vehicle control group; however, the steroid-treated group showed less severe inflam- matory reactions than the vehicle control group. These results suggest that capsaicin cannot reduce inflammation but may play a helpful role in reducing pruritus in dogs.
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Abstract

In individual dogs, despite good quality of raw sperm, some parameters are significantly changed after thawing, which cannot be predicted. We therefore investigated whether motility parameters objectively obtained by CASA, membrane integrity (MI), cell morphology or a combination are suitable to improve the prediction of bad post-thaw quality. For this purpose 250 sperm analysis protocols from 141 healthy stud dogs, all patients introduced for sperm cryopreservation, were evaluated and a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) -analysis performed. The sperm was routinely collected, analysed, and frozen by using a modified Uppsala system. After thawing, data were routinely examined by using CASA, fluorescent microscopy for membrane integrity (MI) and Hancock’s fixation for evaluation of cell morphology. Samples were sorted by post-thaw progressive motility (P) in good (P > / = 50%, n=135) and bad freezers (P<50%, n=115). Among bad freezers, 73.9% showed in addition post-thaw total morphological abberations of >40% and/or MI <50%. Bad freezers were significantly older than good freezers (p<0.05). Progressive motility (P), velocity curvilinear (VCL), mean coefficient (STR), and linear coefficient (LIN) were potential predictors for post-thaw sperm quality since specifity was best (85.8%) and sensitivity (75.4 %) and accuracy (80.4 %) good. For these objectively measured raw sperm parameters, cut-off values were calculated allowing prediction of bad post-thaw results with high accuracy: P = 83.1 % VCL = 161.3 µm/sec, STR = 0.83 %, and LIN = 0.48 %. Raw sperm samples with values below these cut off values will have below average post-thaw quality with a probability of 85.8%. We conclude that VCL, P, STR and LIN are potential predictors of the outcome of sperm cryopreservation, when combined.
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to obtain reference values for diastolic cardiac function parameters in healthy dogs and to ascertain if significant differences exist between dogs of various age, weight and sex. The study was performed on 82 healthy dogs of different age and breed. Eleven param- eters were analyzed: peak velocity during early diastolic filling, acceleration time of early diastol- ic filling, deceleration time of early diastolic filling, total time of early diastolic filling, peak veloc- ity during late diastolic filling, acceleration time of late diastolic filling, deceleration time of late diastolic filling, total time of late diastolic filling, total time of early and late diastolic filling, ratio of peak velocities during early and late diastolic filling, isovolumetric relaxation time. The Dop- pler measurements used for general assessment of diastolic function in healthy dogs were signifi- cantly influenced by body weight, heart rate and age. No significant differences were found be- tween males and females. This study described the value of non-invasive echocardiographic assessment of diastolic function in healthy dogs.
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Abstract

A clinical trial was performed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of osaterone acetate (OSA) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in dogs. Osaterone acetate (Ypozane, Virbac) was administered orally at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg body weight once a day for seven days to 23 dogs with BPH. During the 28-day trial, the dogs were monitored five times for their clinical signs and prostate volume. The OSA treatment promoted rapid reduction of clinical scores to 73.2% on day 7 and to 5.9% on day 28 (p<0.05). Osaterone acetate induced the complete clinical remission in approximately 83.0% of the dogs on day 28. The prostate volume regressed to 64.3% of the pretreatment volume after two weeks of the treatment (p<0.05) and to 54.7% at the end of the trial (p<0.05). In conclusion, OSA quickly reduced clinical signs and volume of the prostate glands in dogs with BPH.
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to measure serum neopterin and C-reactive protein (CRP) concen- trations in female dogs with mammary tumours and evaluate the association between the values of these indicators and some clinical characteristics of the tumour. Fifty three female dogs were used for this study, including 43 dogs with mammary gland tumours (10 benign and 33 malignant) and 10 healthy controls. The concentrations of neopterin and CRP were determined using the ELISA technique and commercial ELISA kits. The mean serum neopterin concentration in fe- male dogs with mammary tumours was lower than in healthy dogs, but significant difference was not found. Similarly, there were no significant differences in neopterin concentrations in female dogs based on tumour size, tumour ulceration and metastasis. The mean CRP concentration was significantly higher (p<0.05) in dogs with malignant tumours compared to dogs with benign tu- mours and control. Furthermore, serum CRP concentration was significantly higher (p<0.05) in dogs with metastatic malignant tumours compared to dogs with non-metastatic mammary tu- mours. The CRP concentration was significantly lower (p<0.05) in dogs with tumours less than 3 cm compared to those with larger tumours, and significantly higher in dogs with ulcerated tu- mours compared to those without ulceration. Our findings suggest that the neoplastic process in the mammary gland does not cause significant changes in serum neopterin concentrations in dogs. Higher concentrations of serum CRP in dogs with advanced stages of malignant tumours may suggest that CRP could be a potential prognostic marker in canine malignant mammary tu- mours, but this hypothesis needs further study.
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Abstract

Characterisation of copy number variation (CNV) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has pro- vided evidence for the relationship of this type of genetic variation with the occurrence of a broad spectrum of diseases, including cancer lesions. The role of CNVs and germinal or somatic LOHs in canine mammary tumours is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify CNVs and LOHs in canine mammary tumours. Forty-eight samples obtained from normal (n=24) and tumour (n=24) tissues of dogs were analysed. In the study, we used CanineHD BeadChip assay (Illumina) and OncoSNP software to identify copy number alternations in genomes of dif- ferent dog breeds and in different mammary cancer types occurring in this species. The analyses revealed that, in the case of CNV, the amplification-type variants were longer and more frequent than deletions. Based on the analysis of the frequency of different types of aberrations in the in- dividual parts of the genome, regions that are particularly susceptible to structural aberrations were indicated. The fraction of genes identified within these regions was associated with major processes of neoplastic transformation. Association analysis of such traits as tumour grading as well as the size and age of dogs demonstrated that structural aberrations were more frequent in dogs diagnosed with tumour malignancy grade II and III, in dogs with a larger body size, and in large dogs aged 7-8. The promising results of these pioneering investigations prompt continuation thereof to analyse other types of cancer.
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Abstract

Animals kept outside their natural environment often suffer from boredom. They don’t hunt or have a chance to conduct their mating rituals, and their natural tendency for physical activity is limited by space. These deficiencies affect their psychological well-being. But when it comes to dogs, we can help them by exploiting their excellent sense of smell.
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