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Abstract

It is meaningful to study the issues of CO migration and its concentration distribution in a blind gallery to provide a basis for CO monitoring and calculation of fume-drainage time, which is of a great significance to prevent fume-poisoning accidents and improve efficiency of an excavation cycle. Based on a theoretical analysis of a differential change of CO mass concentration and the CO dispersion model in a fixed site, this paper presents several blasting fume monitoring test experiments, carried out with the test location to the head LP in arrange of 40-140 m. Studies have been done by arranging multiple sensors in the arch cross-section of the blind gallery, located at the Guilaizhuang Gold Mine, Shandong Province, China. The findings indicate that CO concentrations in the axial directions are quadratic functions with the Y and Z coordinate values of the cross-section of the blind gallery in an ascending stage of CO time- -concentration curve, with the maximum CO concentrations in Y = 150 cm and Z = 150 cm. Also, the gradients of CO concentration in the gallery are symmetrical with the Y = 150 cm and Z = 150 cm. In the descending stage of CO time-concentration curve, gradients of CO concentration decrease in lateral sides and increase in the middle, then gradually decrease at last. The rules of CO concentration distribution in the cross-section are that airflow triggers the turbulent change of the CO distribution volume concentration and make the CO volume concentration even gradually in the fixed position of the gallery. Moreover, the CO volume concentrations decrease gradually, as well as volume concentration gradients in the cross-section. The uniformity coefficients of CO concentration with duct airflow velocities of 12.5 m/s, 17.7 m/s and 23.2 m/s reach near 0.9 at 100-140 m from the heading to the monitoring spot. The theoretical model of a one-dimensional migration law of CO basically coincides with the negative exponential decay, which is verified via fitting. The average effective turbulent diffusion coefficient of CO in the blind gallery is approximate to 0.108 m2/s. There are strong linear relationships between CO initial concentration, CO peak concentrations and mass of explosive agent, which indicates that the CO initial concentration and the CO peak concentration can be predicted, based on the given range of the charging mass. The above findings can provide reliable references to the selection, installation of CO sensors and prediction of the fume-drainage time after blasting.
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Abstract

In this paper, a new simple method for determination of flow parameters, axial dispersion coefficients DL and Péclet numbers Pe was presented. This method is based on an accurate measurement model considering pulse tracer response. Our method makes it possible to test the character of gas flow motion and precisely measure flow parameters for different pressures and temperatures. The idea of combining the transfer function, numerical inversion of the Laplace transform and optimisation method gives many benefits like a simple and effective way of finding solution of inverse problem and model coefficients. The calculated values of flow parameters (DL and/or Pe) suggest that in the considered case the gas flow is neither plug flow nor perfect mixing under operation condition. The obtained outcomes agree with the gas flow theory. Calculations were performed using the CAS program type, Maple®.
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Abstract

This article presents a new efficient method of determining values of gas flow parameters (e.g. axial dispersion coefficient, DL and Pèclet number, Pe). A simple and very fast technique based on the pulse tracer response is proposed. It is a method which combines the benefits of a transfer function, numerical inversion of the Laplace transform and optimization allows estimation of missing coefficients. The study focuses on the simplicity and flexibility of the method. Calculations were performed with the use of the CAS-type program (Maple®). The correctness of the results obtained is confirmed by good agreement between the theory and experimental data for different pressures and temperature. The CAS-type program is very helpful both for mathematical manipulations as a symbolic computing environment (mathematical formulas of Laplace-domain model are rather sophisticated) and for numerical calculations. The method of investigations of gas flow motion is original. The method is competitive with earlier methods.
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Abstract

The BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) is one of the four global navigation satellite systems. More attention has been paid to the positioning algorithm of the BDS. Based on the study on the Kalman filter (KF) algorithm, this paper proposed a novel algorithm for the BDS, named as the minimum dispersion coefficient criteria Kalman filter (MDCCKF) positioning algorithm. The MDCCKF algorithm adopts minimum dispersion coefficient criteria (MDCC) to remove the influence of noise with an alpha-stable distribution (ASD) model which can describe non-Gaussian noise effectively, especially for the pulse noise in positioning. By minimizing the dispersion coefficient of the positioning error, the MDCCKF assures positioning accuracy under both Gaussian and non-Gaussian environment. Compared with the original KF algorithm, it is shown that the MDCCKF algorithm has higher positioning accuracy and robustness. The MDCCKF algorithm provides insightful results for potential future research.
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