The objective of this study was to investigate the anticoccidial effect of apple cider vinegar added to drinking water with the anticoccidial effect of amprolium to feed broiler chicken. The study has adopted an observational approach to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of apple cider vinegar on broiler chicken. The antioxidative changes were measured adding natural apple cider vinegar to drinking water. Four hundred and fifty broiler chickens were purchased from the local market and distributed into three groups (T+vc: positive control, T-vc: negative control Tv: apple cider vinegar) with 150 chickens in each group. The three groups were further replicated into 3 blocks each containing 50 chickens. The groups were fed balanced diet, amprolium was added to the feed of positive control group, and apple cider vinegar was added to the water of Tv group. Measurements of the different variables were started from week 3, at the end of each week 3 birds were chosen randomly, blood samples were collected via the wing vein, and fecal oocysts were counted from intestinal contents of each individual bird using the McMaster technique. Broiler in the control groups T+ve and T-ve showed clinical signs of coccidiosis (blood in feces) and the number of coccidial oocytes in feces increased with time. In the vinegar group, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed. Concentrations of total antioxidants and catalase enzyme activity significantly increased (p≤0.05); while malondialdehyde concentration significantly decreased (p≤0.05).
The use of suitable mass rearing methods is crucial to establish successful inundative or inoculative biological control programs. The development of an artificial diet considerably reduces costs of mass rearing. In this study, the efficacy of a new meridic artificial diet for rearing the predatory bug, Orius albidipennis (Het., Anthocoridae), was studied. The artificial diet was composed of some natural materials including lamb liver, hen yolk, whey protein, honey, royal jelly and some specific vitamins. To determine the artificial diet efficacy life table parameters of the bugs, using the two-sex life table method, fed artificial and factitious diets, Ephestia kuehniella egg + date palm pollen, were compared. Results showed that O. albidipennis could complete its life stages and reproduce when reared on the recommended artificial diet. However, its fecundity and survival rate when fed the artificial diet was lower than the controls. Overall, due to lower production costs the artificial diet can be recommended for mass rearing of O. albidipennis despite the lower fecundity and survival rate.
O b j e c t i v e: The main goal of our studies was to investigate the eff ect exerted by pulsed electromagnetic filed (PEMF) on adipocytokines secretion in cell culture supernatants from rat adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) grown on varied energy-rich diet. Off spring and adult animals were randomly selected for two types of experimental diets: low (LF) or high fat (HF) diet for 7 weeks. After the diet period, serum glucose level was measured, ADSCs were isolated from adipose tissues from different locations. ADSCs from all experimental groups were exposed to PEMF, supernatants collected and adipokines level was determined. R e s u l t s: HF diet feed in pups/adult animals elevated blood glucose level and increased the level of adiponectin (Apn) and leptin of both genders and age measured in serum. ADSCs cell cultures originated from female pups on LF diet and exposed to PEMF released large amounts of Apn. PEMF effect exerted on Apn release was also observed in ADSCs isolated from male pups HF diet. ADSCs from female pups on LF diet exposed to PEMF released smaller amounts of leptin in comparison to cell cultures without PEMF treatment. PEMF exposure of ADSCs cell cultures originated from female adults on LF diet decreased release of Apn, contrary adult male on LF diet ADSCs under PEMF treatment produced more leptin. PEMF treated male HF diet-originated ADSCs cultures released significantly more leptin than controls. C o n c l u s i o n: Our results suggest that PEMF exposure is responsible for metabolic physiological balance effects obtained in ADSCs cultures originating from adult animals on HF diet.
The aim of the study is to describe aspects of the life history of the Atlantic poacher (Leptagonus decagonus) obtained during early October 2010 and late September 2011 from the Hinlopen Strait, located between Nordaustlandet and the Spitsbergen Archipelago. Length was measured for 142 individuals, and 82 out of these were weighed, sexed and the age in years determined. The sex distribution in the population was 45% females and 55% males. Gut content examination revealed the domination of the mesopelagic and hyper−benthic calanoid Bradyidius similis that was recorded in 87% of the stomachs analysed. Overall there was a significant difference in size (length and weight) between the sexes, and a difference in length and weight at age between the sexes. There was no difference in age distribution between the sexes, but there was a larger age range within the male population than in the female population. The sexual dimorphism in size is likely linked to different reproductive strategies. This study represents the first data on the life history of the Atlantic poacher in Svalbard waters.