The paper presents the methodology for designing the teeth conjunction of planetary gears in the planetary roller screw mechanism. A function of the planetary gears is to synchronize an operation of rollers in order to avoid axial displacements. A condition of the correct operation is no axial movement of rollers in relation to the nut. The planetary gears are integral parts of rollers and therefore an operation of the gear transmissions has a direct impact on cooperation of the screw, rollers and the nut. The proper design of gear engagements is essential for reducing slippage on surfaces of the cooperating threaded elements. For this purpose, in a designing method, both the limitations of operation and kinematic conditions of rollers’ operation have to be taken into account.
Designer drugs cause irreversible changes in the brain and put those who take them at an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. They can also affect one’s genetic material, says Prof. Krystyna Gołembiowska from the PAS Institute of Pharmacology.
This paper is dedicated to Voivodship Park of Culture and Recreation in Chorzów (Silesia Park) – one of the biggest of its kind in Poland and in Europe (ca. 600 ha of total area). Construction of the Park had begun in 1954 according to the design under the direction of prof. Władysław Niemirski. After many years it became an example of successful land remediation and re-naturalization of anthropogenic landscape. The whole facility though formally created in socrealism style, actually represents classical modernism’s features inspired probably by American parks with a rich recreation program.
In this article the author follows progressive evolution in web design that has been observed in Google Maps over the last 13 years (2005–2018). The analysis includes the graphic presentation of buttons, their layout and the changes in the functionality of the website. The results of the analysis corroborate the argument that it is possible to adapt the existing concept of progressive evolution, to the needs of Internet cartography. In the process of the analysis several crucial changes were spotted, such as the fact that as a result of the technological advancement the need to scroll the map with up, down, left and down buttons disappeared, being supplanted by the dragging function. In article all the discussed changes in Google Maps as an application for desktop computers and laptops, as well as a mobile application, prove that the product has been constantly improved. In the author’s opinion, the crucial aspect is to enrich the web map in the non-invasive way to make it as user-friendly and easy to use as possible. The synthetic juxtaposition allowed one to highlight the evolution, considered by the author an important feature of the non-invasive way of introducing changes. The author notes that progressive evolution on Google Maps and other internet maps will continue. It is important that the user’s needs are noticed during these changes.
Green spaces are an integral element of urban structures. They are not only a place of rest for their users, but also positively affect their well-being and health. The eff ect of these spaces, is the better, the smoother they create larger urban layout – stings of greenery. The introduction of urban greenery can and should be one of the basic elements of revitalization. Often, however, greenery is designed without multi-aspect analysis, enabling understanding of conditions and the use of existing potential in a given place. The use of computational design in conjunction with the use of generally available databases, such as numerical SRTM terrain models, publicly available OSM map database and EPW meteorological data, allows for the design of space in a more comprehensive way. These design methods allow better matching of the greenery design in a given area to specific architectural, urban and environmental conditions.
Like other harbour cities in Europe, Lisbon has an axial development anchored in pre-existing confi gurations which dot from east, more industrial areas, to the west, a more monumental and urban type. The diversity of fabrics and the overlapping of various time layers become decoded through a functional specialization infrastructural line, which, from rural, becomes increasingly infrastructured as part of the on-going reinvention of the city of Lisbon.
The contemporary underground mining of raw minerals is more and more associated with geological and mining software packages which support the work of designers from the moment of the exploration of a deposit, determination of its size and quality, geological, hydrogeological and tectonic conditions, by planning the development and cutting of the deposit. Production planning is one of the most important activities carried out in the course of a mining project, because it allows to set specific production results of a mine in relation to a time unit, and then allows for a verification of the degree of completion of the assumed plan. At present, computer-aided design is applicable to daily or long-term output planning taking deposit, qualitative, quantitative and cost constraints into account. In the article, selected forms of ore deposits were presented. On the basis of several dozen boreholes up to 300m in length, an exemplary fragment of the ore cutting model using computer-aided design of mining works was presented. By using modern computer software - ABB MineScape with modular construction, the possibilities of improving the process of development of future exploitation areas have been determined. In particular, the arrangement of boreholes, based on which ones the cross sections were made with, present the exemplary lithostratigraphic thickness of layers, including the location of discontinuous deformations in the form of faults, and an ore bearing zone. For the block model, resources with priority for metal N o. 1 and 2 were calculated. I n the last section of the article, the cutting idea for a shallow ore deposit has been presented. The degree of effective use of the deposit has been analysed for the room and pillar mining method.
A new 4-D dynamical system exhibiting chaos is introduced in this work. The proposed nonlinear plant with chaos has an unstable rest point and a line of rest points. Thus, the new nonlinear plant exhibits hidden attractors. A detailed dynamic analysis of the new nonlinear plant using bifurcation diagrams is described. Synchronization result of the new nonlinear plant with itself is achieved using Integral Sliding Mode Control (ISMC). Finally, a circuit model using MultiSim of the new 4-D nonlinear plant with chaos is carried out for practical use.
In the Act on Revitalization of 9 October 2015, for the first time in Poland, the legal act introduced the necessity to apply the principles of universal design (Article 3 paragraph 2 point 3). The practice of investment processes in crisis areas shows that the requirements set out in the Act are not properly implemented. Regeneration processes require attention to improve the quality of life of residents. The article presents issues related to the implementation of universal design principles during revitalization processes. There is a noticeable lack of interest in this issue despite the fact that it is one of the three tasks set before local governments in the Revitalization Act, after social participation and support for people at risk of exclusion in the area of housing. The reasons for this state should be seen in a small knowledge of the issue, deficiencies in the educational process of designers and poor control on the part of local governments and central authorities. This is due to conservation conditions, which often misinterpret the right to protect cultural heritage. The self-government as its own task should guarantee the possibility of using the positive effects of the revitalization process, in particular the implementation of residents’ rights to an independent and dignifi ed life, which is required by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
The reminiscences about prof. Tadeusz Bartkowicz focus on the figure of the significant founder of the Kraków school of urban design and spatial planning as well as environment protection. The synthetic presentation of his considerable accomplishments in this field has been based on the review of his scientific and urban planning work, personal contacts with Professor and the works of other scholars, friends and students.
The knowledge about membrane contactors is growing rapidly but is still insufficient for a reliable designing. This paper presents a new type of membrane contactors that are integrated with one of the following ways of separation by using absorbents, micelles, flocculants, functionalized polymers, molecular imprints, or other methods that are based on aggregation. The article discusses methods for designing multi-stage cascade, usually counter-current. At every stage of this cascade, relevant aggregates are retained by the membrane, while the permeate passes freely through membrane. The process takes place in the membrane boundary layer with a local cross-flow of the permeate and the retentate. So the whole system can be called a cross-counter-current. The process kinetics, k, must be coordinated with the permeate flux, J, and the rate of surface renewal of the sorbent on the membrane surface, s. This can be done by using ordinary back-flushing or relevant hydrodynamic method of sweeping, such as: turbulences, shear stresses or lifting forces. A surface renewal model has been applied to adjust the optimal process conditions to sorbent kinetics. The experimental results confirmed the correctness of the model and its suitability for design of the new type of contactors.
The subject of this paper is the study of the specificity of the transformation of the urban public spaces of the Western world and the problem of the multi form nature of this phenomenon. The Author uses such concepts as that of the "hybrid" and of "hybridization" borrowed from the field of natural sciences and explains the reasons for their introduction within this specific scope of research in a broad manner.
This article presents a case study of a large wedge failure. It took place during excavation of the last bench of storage cavern with an approximate dimension of 80 m long having a depth of 8 m. The adopted intervention followed a structured approach, which included immediate rock support, geotechnical and geological investigations in the failure zone and design modifications. Back analyses of the failure zone were also carried out to assess design parameters with observed geological conditions. Re assessment in the failure zone was carried out using modified design parameters, which included shorter benches, rock support installation schemes such as longer rock bolts, reinforced ribs of shotcrete and reduced construction advances. Geotechnical monitoring in and around failure zone were carried out for recording any alarming movements in the rock mass. Initially, geotechnical monitoring was carried out in the recently excavated zone of the cavern on a daily basis. Based on continuous monitoring data for at least one week, the frequency of subsequent monitoring can be decided. In most cases the deformation of rock mass was considerably less than the alarming values which were calculated based on detailed design for different rock classes. The paper discusses the failure, investigation, cause, assessment and remedial measures to complete the construction of cavern.
The paper investigates the supply structure of the capacity market in Poland in the coming years. The results of the capacity auctions conducted in 2018 are analyzed for this purpose. Three auctions were held at that time. The products traded in the capacity market are capacity obligations for the following years: 2021, 2022 and 2023. The auctions were organized in accordance with (i) he Act of December 8, 2017 on the Capacity Market and the (ii) Capacity Market Regulations published by the Polish Power Grid. The source of data used in this study is the official information of the President of the Energy Regulatory Office on the final results of the main auctions for 2021–2023 delivery periods. The list of the capacity suppliers who won capacity auctions contains the type of capacity market units, the volume of capacity obligations, the duration of capacity agreements and the business name of the capacity suppliers. The conducted analysis indicates that the auction for 2021 was won mainly by existing units (45.81%) and refurbishing units (33.51%). In subsequent years, the share of existing generating units is significantly higher and amounts to 91.67% for 2022 and 84.54% for 2023. The results of the study carried out in this paper also show that one energy company, being the owner of power generating daughter companies, has a very high share in these capacity auctions. The PGE Capital Group contracted 51.95% for 2021, 69.92% for 2022 and 64.44% for 2023 of the total capacity obligation. The volume amounts to over 70% of their total installed capacity.
The economic envelopes obtained by optimization techniques in open pit mining are transformed into operational phases that are suitable for extraction through ramp designs. This process is performed with the aid of specialized design software, which is still very manual, time consuming and highly dependent on the expertise of the planner. In this paper, we introduce a new methodology based on a mathematical model to automatically propose the design of ramps from the economic envelope of a pushback, with the resulting envelope having the maximum value. The developed model was tested against a real case scenario showing reasonable and useable solutions for the planner. Using this approach, a planner can evaluate several alternatives in a reasonable time before selecting the final design.
The article undertakes quastion of urban design in a context of urban sprawl linking it to the German debate on suburbanisation, conducted under the slogan of Zwischenstadt – a concept created by Th. Sieverts in 1997. The Ladenburger Kolleg „Zwischenstadt” (LKZ) developed 2002-2006 the interdisciplinary research titled: „Amidst the Edge: Zwischenstadt – towards the qualification of the urbanised landscape” The spatial effects of the dispersion processes were considered to be the manifestation of the creation of a new model of the city. The traditional image of urbanism does not fit its logic. Zwischenstadt (in-beetwen-city) recognized as a phase of the urbanization process, uncoordinated by any imposed urban vision, requires a innovative urban design leitmotives. This new planning tool is necessary to obtain the parameters needed to strengthen internal socio-economic development capabilities. The concept of the efficiency of urban design covered the issue of the character of a city›s image. The morphological studies on a megalopolis structure by Frankfurt a. Main, made a creative use of the Lynch research on the image of the city. Their main goal was to understand the characteristics of the dispersion meant as an urbanized landscape and to determine its susceptibility to the process of improving spatial quality – recognition of the endogenous potentials of generating a Zwischenstadt image.
Waterfront regeneration of port districts emerge as a tool for prestigious development of cities in urban re-imaging and growth. Creation of prestigious housing in these areas are part of a broader strategy of mixed-use and property-led development, but in absence of a holistic approach in planning and design, the urban landscapes may be developed merely on basis of the real estate frameworks. This article looks at how development trends of port cities can take an unintended stance in property-led regeneration of port districts, creating gated communities and failing to succeed in achieving the pre-determined objectives in urban planning. The discussion, which will address to issues of place-making, commodification of public space and planning policies, will take the port city of Izmir as the case. It is suggested that the adoption of a holistic approach to urban planning should guide the regeneration processes and design should take place-making into consideration.
There is estrimated more than 750 (public and privat) hospitals active In Poland. In spite that there is legal regulation concerning hospital projects, realization and equipment – permanent financial problems concerning a public health service, results in standards of hospitals, much worse then represented in hospitals in highly developed countries. A long – term practice of authors, concerning both, design and implementation of hospitals, let them to formulate a set of remarks about disfunction, influalcing growth of a danger, risks and mistakes in medical practice, also unexpected accidents.
This article presents the main stages and challenges in modelling and designing of modern ultrasonic welding and cutting systems. First, the key components of such a system, such as an ultrasonic stack (con- sisting of a high power ultrasonic transducer and a sonotrode) and a digitally controlled ultrasonic power supply with precise control of the output power, have been considered. Next, a concept of measurement system for verification and validation of mathematical models of ultrasonic stacks and its components has been presented. Finally, a method of ultrasonic stack e-diagnosis based on ultrasonic transducer electrical impedance measurement during welding and cutting process has been described
We study an elegant snap system with only one nonlinear term, which is a quadratic nonlinearity. The snap systemdisplays chaotic attractors,which are controlled easily by changing a system parameter. By using analysis, simulations and a real circuit, the dynamics of such a snap system has been investigated. We also investigate backstepping based adaptive control schemes for the new snap system with unknown parameters.
In the paper, a procedure for precise and expedited design optimization of unequal power split patch couplers is proposed. Our methodology aims at identifying the coupler dimensions that correspond to the circuit operating at the requested frequency and featuring a required power split. At the same time, the design process is supposed to be computationally efficient. The proposed methodology involves two types of auxiliary models (surrogates): an inverse one, constructed from a set of reference designs optimized for particular power split values, and a forward one which represents the circuit S-parameter gradients as a function of the power split ratio. The inverse model directly yields the values of geometry parameters of the coupler for any required power split, whereas the forward model is used for a post-scaling correction of the circuit characteristics. For the sake of illustration, a 10-GHz circular sector patch coupler is considered. The power split ratio of the structure is re-designed within a wide range of ��6 dB to 0 dB. As demonstrated, precise scaling (with the power split error smaller than 0.02 dB and the operating frequency error not exceeding 0.05 GHz) can be achieved at the cost of less than three full-wave EM simulations of the coupler. Numerical results are validated experimentally.
City is a formal expression of social relations. It is a kind of ethos and dreams connected with history and identity of individuals. It is a structure with thousands of meanings. The opportunities it creates can lead to an outstanding civilization. At the same time it reveals all negative aspects of living. City is a collection of separate individuals combined with common perception of spatial affi liation and identity development. It is worth writing about city because despite its well-defi ned value it is an elusive being. In spite of being a kind of collective needs it is still on the move, transforms all the time reflecting human emotions. Existence of city as a phenomena itself is a symbol of realization of people’s most basic needs and the history of its development shows growing complication and diversification of expectations related to it. City along with is diversity reflects human beings of a particular time. It is a spotlight in which both successes and failures of communities and individuals in each epoch can be seen. Thanks to its interdisciplinary character it can be perceived as multidimensional place. It is a multifaceted organism with high hopes and unlimited opportunities. Differences in perception which are due to a number of its users results in a wide range of problems and expectations. Expectations of local communities and individuals of a whole city vary. As a result, what we call a city landscape must be very vague and differs depending on a particular field which is taken into consideration. The number of opportunities and city-related issues is infi nite. In the dissertation below, however, three factors are the crucial ones: structure, meaning and city phenomena as a landscape. Thanks to the interpretation of model and genius loci as well as defining social expectations we have managed to conceive the phenomena of spatial identity. We have decided on this method referring directly to the concept of landscape. City is in here widely defined between urban aspects of landscape and city landscape. We have tried to understand what city is in terms of landscape, where it comes from and where it goes to. It is a trial of translation the Gaugin’s method: where are we from? Who are we? Where are we going to? into the language of present perception of some particular aspects of town planning. We live at times of the unprecedented technological change which is followed by a social change. It all must have an impact on how city is perceived, what it looks like, how it is to live there and what it is going to be like – what the future has in store. We have tried to bring the reader’s attention to the problems and issues which had appeared before the advent of reality we live in. We have focused on what may have led to a kind of city crisis at the edge of 19th and 20th centuries and some radical solutions trying to overcome the arisen problems and its consequences today. Both its pompous character and sentimentalism of town planning and architecture in the early 20th century have made us be bored with form which is felt in many parts of the world even today. Another aspect of our work covers understanding city in social terms as well as contemporary and future solutions. We are of the opinion it is worth asking questions referring to the future and at the same time regarding its current state and recent past. It is commendable to look for particular tools and solutions. Three dimensions which are covered by the book are figurative. Structure – which is everything we perceive as a kind of a template, identifi cation – we assign to city. It is responsible for recognition, adaptation to some forms by which we defi ne space. Meaning is a step forward. While the structure’s equivalent is „I can see”, the meaning equals to „I know”. Meaning does not exist as a city without structure just like structure does not exist without meaning. Things don’t just exist, they have some characteristics and purpose and it refers to trees, buildings and all other urban elements constituting city in all steady and temporary aspects and time dimensions. Meaning is also interpretation and emotion regarding both community and individual. It is the answer to the question „why?” Some particular places and spaces are linked to some particular values which identify them. This system of values is a must to be able to interpret what space we are dealing with and its diagnosis. Meaning is very much about social aspect too. It has to do with perception and remembering city and it is connected with knowledge, tradition and culture of places. Another aspect linked to relations in city landscape combines other aspects and constitutes something to which city refers to. Phenomena is contribution and verifi cation. The way city works is fundamental to all city residents and users. A key to such understanding a city is the term of genius loci. By singling out objects, order, time, character and light we are able to widely identify essence of space and particular places. The graphic model by Panofsky acts here as a verifying tool. City landscape as a form is of great importance here. The sense of beauty is as essential as the way the city works. Social perception of city is not only shaped by the way it is used, but also by the fact what city is like and how it is perceived. Spatial order is an incredibly important factor understood here as everything what accommodates vaguely defi ned beauty and what is connected with its particular structure, history and identity. All these factors contribute to the value of city landscape. When it comes to city landscape studies social aspect is emphasized by the impact of humanities, especially sociology, which perfectly shows expectations related to space. Cities are built and seen in the context of particular tradition, culture and history. Their skyline and ways of functioning are embedded in mentalities of societies which they represent. Despite their diversity from the global point of view they are susceptible to similar trends resulting in crisis or prosperity periods. They are economic archetypes of success.
This article reflects on the results the use and eff ectiveness of design coding as urban design / development tool, focusing on the roles of and the relationships between the different actors playing parts in the in the design coding process: the administration, the investors, the designers, the politics and the community. It reveals the gap in professional circles that impacts the development process, which, deepened by the continuous battle between the creative, the market-driven and the regulatory modes praxis. The article is polemical in that it points to the three main parties of this collective process, referring to is as the creative, market and regulatory tyranny. The author proposes that design coding, if used correctly, could be an effective tool regulating the essentials of urbanism, leaving room for creativity and enhanced market value. Design coding as such results in improvement of the quality of both urbans space and housing architecture.
The article describes the design principles, the course of work on the project and the implementation of the Nowe Żerniki district, in the context of the theory of sustainable housing complexes. By comparing the settlement to the Aspern Seestadt, which is considered to be the leading European example of new district development, the author tries to find out, if Nowe Żerniki meets the latest European urban standards and can be called innovative on a European scale. Not only the final shape of the settlement was assessed, but also the design process and functional assumptions of the estate.
The article presents Charles Taylor’s critical philosophy of language and it reviews his recent book on the human linguistic capacity. Critical philosophy of language is understood here as a broad (philosophical, social and political) perspective on language characterized by multifaceted concern with the linguistic and cognitive mechanisms involved in language use. The paper discusses Taylor’s interest in language and philosophy of language, and focuses on his seminal distinction between the ‘designative-instrumental’ and ‘constitutive-expressive’ theories of language. In the former theory language is understood within the confi nes of Cartesian representational epistemology, whereas in the latter language constitutes meaning and shapes human experience (one of the features important for defi ning the critical approach to philosophy of language).