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Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to investigate developmental changes of the thymus and intra- thymic IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α expression in weaned Sprague-Dawley rats induced by lipopolysac- charide. Methods: Forty healthy weaned rats aged 26 days and weighing 83±4 g were randomly and equally divided into two groups. The lipopolysaccharide group was treated daily with a single injection of lipopolysaccharide for 10 consecutive days, and the saline group was treated with an equal volume of sterilized saline. On the 1st, 4th, 7th and 10th day, histological changes and distribu- tion of IL-1β-, IL-6- and TNF-α-positive cells were detected in the thymus by hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining, respectively. Subsequently, the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were evaluated in the thymus by the ELISA method. Results: Thymus weight and index were significantly smaller in lipopolysaccharide-treated rats than in saline-treated rats (p<0.05), but no substantial changes were found in the thymus microstructure after lipopolysaccharide induction. Moreover, a large number of IL-1β-, IL-6- and TNF-α-positive cells were observed with brownish-yellow color and mainly distributed in the thy- mus parenchyma, both integrated optical density and average optical density increased signifi- cantly in lipopolysaccharide-treated rats than those in saline-treated rats. Compared with the saline group, most of the thymic homogenates had higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the lipopolysaccharide group on different days. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the thymus atrophied after lipopolysaccharide induction in weaned Sprague-Dawley rats, and excessive production of intrathymic IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α was probably involved in the atrophic process.
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Abstract

Dendritic cells (DCs) due to their ability to present antigens are essential during the immune response to infections. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection on DC properties. Cytokine profiles of myeloid, plasmacytoid and mono- cyte derived DCs from BLV infected cattle were analysed. Concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in DC cultures were measured by flow cytometry. Obtained results indicated activation of pDCs population, where a significant increase in production of the IFN-γ was shown. Meanwhile, a decrease in production of IFN-γ and increase in production of IL-10 were shown in mDCs; the main population responsible for antigens presentation. This may indicate a contribu- tory role of the population during the process of persistent infection. In MoDCs population a significant elevation in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines – IL-6 and TNF-α was noted.
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Abstract

Due to the unrecognized effect of tigecycline (TIG) on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, the present study has been undertaken in order to determine whether the drug can affect these cells in respect of their counts, and the production of IFN-γ, IL-17 (pro-inflammatory and immune-protective cytokines), IL-4 (anti-inflammatory and immune-protective cytokine), IL-10 and TGF-β (anti-inflammatory and immune-suppressive cytokines). Murine lymphocytes were treated with TIG for 48 and 96 h at concentrations reflecting its plasma levels obtained in vivo at therapeutic doses, and at 10-fold lower concentrations. It was found that TIG neither affected substantially the percentage and absolute counts of entire CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations nor influenced the Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ regulatory/suppressive T cell subset. Furthermore, the percentages of IL-4-, IL-10-, IL-17- and TGF-β-producing CD4+ T cells were not altered following the exposure to TIG. Similarly, TIG did not influence IFN-γ production by CD8+ T cells. Thus, with respect to the parameters evaluated, TIG does not seem to exert immune-suppressive and anti-inflammatory effects.
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