This paper deals with the prevention of failure of structural elements made of reinforced concrete. It discusses preservice cracks in the concrete decks of an underground parking facility. The cracks were assessed by analyzing their morphology. The results were used to determine the crack causes and the mechanisms of their initiation and growth. Some design solutions to prevent or reduce the occurrence of pre-service cracks are also presented.
As a machining technology, welding can cause serious accidents by overloading or operation mistakes. Through analyzing the causes of various welding accidents, we found that the major cause for damage imposed after welding parts are loaded is the fracture of materials. Therefore, studying the influence of welding residual stress on the fracture property of materials is of great significance. This paper applied the digital image correlation technique to study the fracture property of welding parts under the influence of welding residual stress. In addition, standard parts and welding parts were selected to carry out a contrast experiment. Room temperature tensile tests were performed on both standard parts and test pieces after residual stress measurement. Using displacement field and strain field data obtained through VIC-2D software, the stress intensity factor around the crack tip of each specimen under the conditions of small load was calculated and corresponding analysis was carried out.
An automated method for crack identification and quantitative description of crack systems in concrete was developed in order to aid a service life assessment of concrete elements in structures. Flat polished specimens for crack analysis were impregnated with epoxy resin containing fluorescent dye. The examination of the crack system was performed in ultraviolet light using a stereomicroscope and an Image Pro Plus image analysis system on specimens cored out of several concrete structures. The laboratory tests were performed on cast specimens to establish correlations between water penetration and chloride diffusion and crack system parameters. The analysis of cracks in concrete cores taken from structures resulted in interesting conclusions based on the crack width distribution and crack localization with respect to steel reinforcement. The method was found very effective to support standard concrete diagnostics methods.
In the paper, the method of a numerical simulation concerning diagonal crack propagation in con-crete beams was presented. Two beams reinforced longitudinally but without shear reinforcement were considered during the Finite Element Method analysis. In particular, a nonlinear method was used to simulate the crack evaluation in the beams. The analysis was performed using the commercial program ANSYS. In the numerical simulation, the limit surface for concrete described by Willam and Warnke was applied to model the failure of concrete. To solve the FEM-system of equations, the Newton-Raphson method was used. As the results of FEM calculations, the trajectories of total stains and numerical images of smeared cracks were obtained for two analyzed beams: the slender beam S5 of leff = 1.8 m and the short beam S3k of leff = 1.1 m. The applied method allowed to generate both flexural vertical cracks and diagonal cracks in the shear regions. Some differences in the evaluation of crack patterns in the beams were observed. The greater number of flexural vertical cracks which penetrated deeper in the beam S5 caused the lower stiffness and the greater deformation in the beam S5 compared to the short beam S3k. Numerical results were compared with the experimental data from the early tests performed by Słowik . The numerical simulation yielded very similar results as the experiments and it confirmed that the character of failure process altered according to the effective length of the member. The proposed numerical procedure was successfully verified and it can be suitable for numerical analyses of diagonal crack propagation in concrete beams.
In this paper the effect of soldering technique and thermal shock test were investigated on SAC 305 solder joints, produced by two different solder method. The solder joints were subjected to different cycle numbers up to 5000 thermal shock tests with two different thermal profiles of –30/+110°C and –40/+125°C. Microstructural properties of the tested joints were examined with the focus on intermetallic layer thickness and crack formation/propagation. Thickness of the scallop shaped Cu6Sn5 intermetallic layer was increased with increasing cycle number for both THRS and multiwave joints, but the thickening was more effective for the THRS joints. Cracks typically formed at the solder alloy/ PTH barrel and the solder alloy/pin interfaces and propagated along grain boundaries and precipitations of intermetallic compound.
This study was carried out on the background of Sutong Bridge project based on fracture mechanics, aiming at analyzing the growth mechanism of fatigue cracks of a bridge under the load of vehicles. Stress intensity factor (SIF) can be calculated by various methods. Three steel plates with different kinds of cracks were taken as the samples in this study. With the combination of finite element analysis software ABAQUS and the J integral method, SIF values of the samples were calculated. After that, the extended finite element method in the simulation of fatigue crack growth was introduced, and the simulation of crack growth paths under different external loads was analyzed. At last, we took a partial model from the Sutong Bridge and supposed its two dangerous parts already had fine cracks; then simulative vehicle load was added onto the U-rib to predict crack growth paths using the extended finite element method.
The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull.Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published bimonthly by the Division IV Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences, since the beginning of the existence of the PAS in 1952. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form. It is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred: Artificial and Computational Intelligence, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, Civil Engineering, Control, Informatics and Robotics, Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics, Material Science and Nanotechnology, Power Systems and Power Electronics. Journal Metrics: JCR Impact Factor 2018: 1.361, 5 Year Impact Factor: 1.323, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.319, Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.005, CiteScore 2017: 1.27, The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017: 25 points. Abbreviations/Acronym: Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech., ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci., JCR Abbrev: B POL ACAD SCI-TECH Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS.
Digital holography (DH) which is the technology of acquiring and processing measurement data via a CCD camera is spreading to industrial applications, finds wide employment in engineering problems of testing and investigation. In this paper, a simple digital holographic system, comprising a He-Ne laser source, CCD camera and analyzing software, is used for testing surface flatness and detecting the presence of a propagating crack on the surface plane and the effect of the crack on the neighborhood. Phase variations across the surfaces planes are extracted to represent the surface deviation from a reference plane. The analysis methods differ according to the interference fringes in the recorded holograms. Both fringe tracking and Fourier transform with phase unwrapping methods are used in the interpretation of interferometric fringe patterns.
A strip yield model implementation by the present authors is applied to predict fatigue crack growth observed in structural steel specimens under various constant and variable amplitude loading conditions. Attention is paid to the model calibration using the constraint factors in view of the dependence of both the crack closure mechanism and the material stress-strain response on the load history. Prediction capabilities of the model are considered in the context of the incompatibility between the crack growth resistance for constant and variable amplitude loading.
Based on the mould temperature measured by thermocouples during slab continuous casting, a difference of temperature thermograph is developed to detect slab cracks. In order to detect abnormal temperature region caused by longitudinal crack, the suspicious regions are extracted and divided by virtue of computer image processing algorithms, such as threshold segmentation, connected region judgement and boundary tracing. The abnormal regions are then determined and labeled with the eight connected component labeling algorithm. The boundary of abnormal region is also extracted to depict characteristics of longitudinal crack. Based on above researches, longitudinal crack with abnormal temperature region can be detected and is different from other abnormalities. Four samples of temperature drop are picked up to compare with longitudinal crack on the abnormal region formation, length, width, shape, et al. The results show that the abnormal region caused by longitudinal crack has a linear and vertical shape. The height of abnormal region is more than the width obviously. The ratio of height to width is usually larger than that of other temperature drop regions. This method provides a visual and easy way to detect longitudinal crack and other abnormities. Meanwhile it has a positive meaning to the intelligent and visual mould monitoring system of continuous casting.
The paper deals with the application of the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) to simulations of discrete macro-cracks in plain concrete specimens under tension, bending and shear. Fundamental relationships and basic discrete constitutive laws were described. The most important aspects of the numerical implementation were discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of the method were outlined.
In this article, the fracture behavior of functionally graded thick-walled cylinder under thermo-mechanical shock is investigated. For this purpose, classical coupled thermoelastic equations are used in calculations. First, these equations are discretized with extended finite element method (XFEM) in the space domain and then they are solved by the Newmark method in the time domain. The most general form of interaction integral is extracted for axially symmetric circumferential crack in a cylinder under thermal and mechanical loads in functionally graded materials and is used to calculate dynamic stress intensity factors (SIFs). The problem solution has been implemented in MATLAB software.
Nominal strength reduction in cross ply laminates of [0/90]2s is observed in tensile tests of glass fiber composite laminates having central open hole of diameters varying from 2 to 10 mm. This is well known as the size effect. The extended finite element method (XFEM) is implemented to simulate the fracture process and size effect (scale effect) in the glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates weakened by holes or notches. The analysis shows that XFEM results are in good agreement with the experimental results specifying nominal strength and in good agreement with the analytical results based on the cohesive zone model specifying crack opening displacement and the fracture process zone length.
The paper presents results of the possibility of adapting the Althoff-Radtke test for High Chromium Cast Iron. The Althoff-Radtke test is a clump attempt used for steel. The Althoff-Radtke test has four different lengths of clamp which qualifies it as a test to quantitatively take into account different kinds of shrinkage ΔL. The length of the slot of the cracked corner and the length of each staple (50 - 350 mm) are the parameters tendency to cast cracks. Castings of white cast iron have a high tendency to hot cracking due to the large range of solidification temperatures, unfavorable kinetics parameters of shrinkage, and especially a lack of expansion before shrinkage. Shrinkage of high chromium white cast iron is similar to the shrinkage of cast steel, and is approximately 2%. Therefore it is important to test susceptibility to hot cracks. Research was carried out under industrial conditions. Four melts were performed, one of the initial chemical composition and the other three modified by different amounts of Fe-Ti, respectively, 0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75% Fe-Ti. The propensity for hot cracking was based on the observation of the dark surface in the corner of the sample. The study shows that the Althoff-Radtke test can be adapted to determine the tendency for hot cracking of high chromium cast iron. It should however be noted that the test results cannot be compared with those for other alloys.
In the present work, a procedure for the estimation of internal damping in a cracked rotor system is described. The internal (or rotating) damping is one of the important rotor system parameters and it contributes to the instability of the system above its critical speed. A rotor with a crack during fatigue loading has rubbing action between the two crack faces, which contributes to the internal damping. Hence, internal damping estimation also can be an indicator of the presence of a crack. A cracked rotor system with an offset disc, which incorporates the rotary and translatory of inertia and gyroscopic effect of the disc is considered. The transverse crack is modeled based on the switching crack assumption, which gives multiple harmonics excitation to the rotor system. Moreover, due to the crack asymmetry, the multiple harmonic excitations leads to the forward and backward whirls in the rotor orbit. Based on equations of motions derived in the frequency domain (full spectrum), an estimation procedure is evolved to identify the internal and external damping, the additive crack stiffness and unbalance in the rotor system. Numerically, the identification procedure is tested using noisy responses and bias errors in system parameters.
In the rotor system, depending upon the ratio of rotating (internal) damping and stationary (external) damping, above the critical speed may develop instability regions. The crack adds to the rotating damping due to the rubbing action between two faces of a breathing crack. Therefore, there is a need to estimate the rotating damping and other system parameters based on experimental investigation. This paper deals with a physical model based an experimental identification of the rotating and stationary damping, unbalance, and crack additive stiffness in a cracked rotor system. The model of the breathing crack is considered as of a switching force function, which gives an excitation in multiple harmonics and leads to rotor whirls in the forward and backward directions. According to the rotor system model considered, equations of motion have been derived, and it is converted into the frequency domain for developing the estimation equation. To validate the methodology in an experimental setup, the measured time domain responses are converted into frequency domain and are utilized in the developed identification algorithm to estimate the rotor parameters. The identified parameters through the experimental data are used in the analytical rotor model to generate responses and to compare them with experimental responses.
The paper presents a detailed analysis of the material damaging process due to lowcycle fatigue and subsequent crack growth under thermal shocks and high pressure. Finite Element Method (FEM) model of a high pressure (HP) by-pass valve body and a steam turbine rotor shaft (used in a coal power plant) is presented. The main damaging factor in both cases is fatigue due to cycles of rapid temperature changes. The crack initiation, occurring at a relatively low number of load cycles, depends on alternating or alternating-incremental changes in plastic strains. The crack propagation is determined by the classic fracture mechanics, based on finite element models and the most dangerous case of brittle fracture. This example shows the adaptation of the structure to work in the ultimate conditions of high pressure, thermal shocks and cracking.
For the die casting conditions of aluminium bronzes assumed based on the literature data, a thick-walled bush was cast, made of complex aluminium bronze (Cu-Al-Fe-Ni-Cr). After the cast was removed from the mould, cracks were observed inside it. In order to identify the stage in the technological production process at which, potentially, the formation of stresses damaging the continuity of the microstructure created in the cast was possible (hot cracking and/or cold cracking), a computer simulation was performed. The article presents the results of the computer simulation of the process of casting the material into the gravity die as well as solidifying and cooling of the cast in the shape of a thick-walled bush. The simulation was performed with the use of the MAGMA5 program and by application of the CuAl10Ni5,5Fe4,5 alloy from the MAGMA5 program database. The results were compared with the location of the defects identified in the actual cast. As a result of the simulation of the die-casting process of this bush, potential regions were identified where significant principal stresses accumulate, which can cause local hot and cold cracking. Until now, no research has been made of die-cast aluminium bronzes with a Cr addition. Correlating the results of the computer simulation validated by the analysis of the actual cast made it possible to clearly determine the critical regions in the cast exposed to cracking and point to the causes of its occurrence. Proposals of changes in the bush die casting process were elaborated, in order to avoid hot tearing and cold cracking. The article discusses the results of preliminary tests being a prologue to the optimization of the die-casting process parameters of complex aluminium bronze thick-walled bushs.