Slag refining slag with west materials was analysed used the DTA methods. In the paper a method of determining the reduction capability, with the Carbo-N-Ox method, of slag solutions was used. Some relations between the stimulators in the environment - slag - metal system allow to initiate mass exchange reactions in the process of slag refining.The presented in work course of behaviour permits on choice of basic composition of slaglite, the of necessary components stimulating quantities, as well as on accomplishment of opinion of ability refinement. The worked out programme Slag-Prop, after introduction of data with experiment, it allows on next corrections in composition of proposed mixtures also, should be put on properly elaborated factors of multistage reaction with essential usage of suitable stimulators.
During the slag refining process, in the real systems, the complex processes of mass exchange appear. Some relations between the stimulators in the environment - slag - metal system allow to initiate mass exchange reactions in the process of slag refining. Due to this kind of influences there is a possibility of direction and control of melting copper and it’s alloys.
The scope of this work is to investigate the precipitation of two Al-Mg-Si alloys with and without Cu and excess Si by using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopic (TEM), Vickers hardness measurement and X-ray diffraction. The analysis of the DSC curves found that the excess Si accelerate the precipitation and the alloy contain the excess Si and small addition of copper has higher aging-hardness than that of free alloy (without excess Si and Cu) at the same heat treatment condition. The sufficient holding time for the precipitation of the β'' phase was estimated to be 6 hours for the alloy aged at 100°C and 10 hours for the alloy aged at 180°C. The low Copper containing Al-Mg-Si alloy gives rise to the forming a finer distribution of β (Mg2Si) precipitates which increases the hardness of the alloy. In order to know more about the precipitation reactions, concern the peaks on the DSC curve transmission electron microscopy observation were made on samples annealed at temperatures (250°C, 290°C and 400°C) just above the corresponding peaks of the three phases β'', β' and β respectively.
Archaeometallurgical investigations presented in this work focus on analysing the microstructure as well as mechanical properties of artefacts from the17th in form of findings performed from cast iron as well as copper casts. The presented research results extend the up-to-date knowledge and present the analysis of structural compounds found in the microstructure of the artefacts from the time dating back to the late Middle Ages in the region around Czestochowa, Poland. The tested samples were found in earth in the city centre under the present marketplace. The excavation works were carried out in summer in the year 2009, and have resulted in the excavation of artefacts in form of copper block of the weight of several kg. The excavation action was led by a group of Polish archaeologists collaborating with the local authorities. The performed pre-dating of this element determines the age of the artefacts as the 17th century AD. The excavations that have been taking place since 2007 have widened the knowledge of the former Czestochowa. Historians of this town have suggested, that the found weight and traces of metallurgical activity suggest that the exposed walls were an urban weight. The weight is visible on the 18th century iconography. What was find on the Old Market indicates that there was a lush economic life before the Swedish invasion in this part of Poland. Some buildings lost their functions or were changed, others died in fires, but new places developed. To describe the microstructure, with its structural components, research was done using microscopy techniques, both of the light as well as electron microscopy (SEM), also chemical composition analysis was carried out using the EDS technique, as well as tool for phase analysis were applied in form of X-Ray Diffraction (qualitative analysis), especially for the reason to describe the phases present in the excavated material. This research will help to obtain new information in order to investigate further archaeometallurgical artefacts, extending the knowledge about middle age metallic materials its usage and manufacturing.
The casting workshop was discovered with numerous artifacts, confirming the existence of the manufacturing process of metal ornaments using ceramic molds and investment casting technology in Lower Silesia (Poland) in 7-6 BC. The research has yielded significant technological information about the bronze casting field, especially the alloys that were used and the artifacts that were made from them. Based on the analyses, the model alloys were experimentally reconstructed. Taking advantage of the computer-modeling method, a geometric visualization of the bronze bracelets was performed; subsequently, we simulated pouring liquid metal in the ceramic molds and observed the alloy solidification. These steps made it possible to better understand the casting processes from the perspective of the mold technology as well as the melting and casting of alloys.
The article presents chosen aspects of foundry engineering of the settlement dwellers, including the archaeometric characteristics and metal science analysis of the artefacts, as well as an attempted reconstruction of the production organization. Discovered in Szczepidło (Greater Poland), the foundry workshop is unique in Central European Bronze Age. This workshop foundry operated roughly XIV-XII Century BC. Its production is evidenced by the presence of markers of the whole production cycle: semi-finished and finished products, production waste, fragments of crucibles and casting ladles with traces of usage, and tools. On this basis, the alloys and foundry technologies used have been described. The analysis of foundry technology of copper alloys in the settlement area was carried out by observing the surface and structure of the products, semi-finished artefacts and fragments of crucibles by applying optical microscopy (OM), confocal microscopy (CLSM) and Xray radiography (RT). The investigations of compositions were made by means of the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (EDS).
An intentional change in material properties is an important condition for castings production. It is one way how to meet the casting requirements of how to adapt the material properties to the operating conditions. Centrifugally cast rolls are multi-layer rollers, castings. The working layer of the barrel is called the "shell" and the body of the roll and the necks rolls are called "core". The article deals with the influence of the properties of the core iron. Earlier laboratory experiments were primary analysed for metallographic analysis and mechanical properties. These data were compared back to the experiments. The results of these laboratory working were later applied in the operating conditions of the roll foundry Vítkovitcké slévárny, spol. s r.o. The spun cast roll produced with the applied metallurgical processing change was supplied to the hot strip mill. There were monitored the positive effect of the change of the metallurgical process of the production of the core iron on the useful properties of the centrifugally cast roll. The experiment was done in order to increase the mechanical properties of ductile pearlite ductile iron. The copper in these core iron material increases the hardness and strength primarily.
Investment casting technology that utilizes lost-wax casting is one of the most-important achievements of ancient society. In Lower Silesia, Poland (Grzybiany, Legnica county), a 7-6 BC casting workshop was discovered with numerous artifacts, confirming the existence of the manufacturing process of metal ornaments using ceramic molds. The paper presents the research of molds and casts from the Bronze and Early Iron Ages. Microscopic analyses of the casting molds were performed, along with radiographic and chemical composition tests of the artifacts (the latter employing the use of the X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy method). The clustering method was used for alloy classification. The microstructure was analyzed by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. Conclusions from the research were utilized in further experiments