The author discusses the problem of reference of (nominal, verbal, adjectival groups, and adverbial) sentence components realized within coordinate relationships. Initially, the author refers to the theory of compactness as an explanation of the processes of generating coordinate constructions in the structure of simple sentences. There are evidences in favor of the thesis that the compactness theory does not explain coordination in semantic aspect. This applies not only to the structure with the main predicate with plural distribution (valence), but also to the entire range of coordination. The author distinguishes two types of references of coordinated phrases (in structure of a simple sentence): a distributional and a collective one. The constructional and semantic peculiarities of the expressions of both types have been described in relation to the contemporary Polish and Russian language.
The article presents the methodology to estimate the operator influence on measurements performed with a coordinate measuring arm. The research was based on the R&R analysis, adapted to the specifics of redundant devices such as ACMM (selection of a test object difficult to measure). The method provides for measurements by three operators, who measure ten parts in two or three samples (measurement data developed in the article relate to the three measurements of holes). The methodology is designed to identify which operator has the best predisposition to perform measurements (generates the smallest measurement errors). Statistica software was used to analyse and visualize measurement data.
Transverse effective thermal conductivity of the random unidirectional fibre-reinforced composite was studied. The geometry was circular with random patterns formed using random sequential addition method. Composite geometries for different volume fraction and fibre radii were generated and their effective thermal conductivities (ETC) were calculated. Influence of fibre-matrix conductivity ratio on composite ETC was investigated for high and low values. Patterns were described by a set of coordination numbers (CN) and correlations between ETC and CN were constructed. The correlations were compared with available formulae presented in literature. Additionally, symmetry of the conductivity tensor for the studied geometries of fibres was analysed.
The loss of power and voltage can affect distribution networks that have a significant number of distributed power resources and electric vehicles. The present study focuses on a hybrid method to model multi-objective coordination optimisation problems for dis- tributed power generation and charging and discharging of electric vehicles in a distribution system. An improved simulated annealing based particle swarm optimisation (SAPSO) algorithm is employed to solve the proposed multi-objective optimisation problem with two objective functions including the minimal power loss index and minimal voltage deviation index. The proposed method is simulated on IEEE 33-node distribution systems and IEEE-118 nodes large scale distribution systems to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the technique. The simulation results indicate that the power loss and node voltage deviation are significantly reduced via the coordination optimisation of the power of distributed generations and charging and discharging power of electric vehicles.With the methodology supposed in this paper, thousands of EVs can be accessed to the distribution network in a slow charging mode.
This paper presents a multivariate regression predictive model of drift on the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) behaviour. Evaluation tests on a CMM with a multi-step gauge were carried out following an extended version of an ISO evaluation procedure with a periodicity of at least once a week and during more than five months. This test procedure consists in measuring the gauge for several range volumes, spatial locations, distances and repetitions. The procedure, environment conditions and even the gauge have been kept invariables, so a massive measurement dataset was collected over time under high repeatability conditions. A multivariate regression analysis has revealed the main parameters that could affect the CMM behaviour, and then detected a trend on the CMM performance drift. A performance model that considers both the size of the measured dimension and the elapsed time since the last CMM calibration has been developed. This model can predict the CMM performance and measurement reliability over time and also can estimate an optimized period between calibrations for a specific measurement length or accuracy level.
Obtaining discrete data is inseparably connected with losing information on surface properties. In contact measurements, the ball tip functions as a mechanical-geometrical filter. In coordinate measurements the coordinates of the measurement points of a discrete distribution on the measured surface are obtained. Surface geometric deviations are represented by a set of local deviations, i.e. deviations of measurement points from the nominal surface (the CAD model), determined in a direction normal to this surface. The results of measurements depend both on the ball tip diameter and the grid size of measurement points. This article presents findings on the influence of the ball tip diameter and the grid size on coordinate measurement results along with the experimental results of measurement of a free-form milled surface, in order to determine its local geometric deviations. One section of the surface under research was measured using different measurement parameters. The whole surface was also scanned with different parameters, observing the rule of selecting the tip diameter d and the sampling interval T in the ratio of 2:1.
Land surveyors, photogrammetrists, remote sensing engineers and professionals in the Earth sciences are often faced with the task of transferring coordinates from one geodetic datum into another to serve their desired purpose. The essence is to create compatibility between data related to different geodetic reference frames for geospatial applications. Strictly speaking, conventional techniques of conformal, affine and projective transformation models are mostly used to accomplish such task. With developing countries like Ghana where there is no immediate plans to establish geocentric datum and still rely on the astro-geodetic datums as it national mapping reference surface, there is the urgent need to explore the suitability of other transformation methods. In this study, an effort has been made to explore the proficiency of the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) as a novel alternative coordinate transformation method. The proposed ELM approach was applied to data found in the Ghana geodetic reference network. The ELM transformation result has been analysed and compared with benchmark methods of backpropagation neural network (BPNN), radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), two-dimensional (2D) affine and 2D conformal. The overall study results indicate that the ELM can produce comparable transformation results to the widely used BPNN and RBFNN, but better than the 2D affine and 2D conformal. The results produced by ELM has demonstrated it as a promising tool for coordinate transformation in Ghana.
A new method to transform from Cartesian to geodetic coordinates is presented. It is based on the solution of a system of nonlinear equations with respect to the coordinates of the point projected onto the ellipsoid along the normal. Newton’s method and a modification of Newton’s method were applied to give third-order convergence. The method developed was compared to some well known iterative techniques. All methods were tested on three ellipsoidal height ranges: namely, (-10 – 10 km) (terrestrial), (20 – 1000 km), and (1000 – 36000 km) (satellite). One iteration of the presented method, implemented with the third-order convergence modified Newton’s method, is necessary to obtain a satisfactory level of accuracy for the geodetic latitude ( σ φ < 0.0004”) and height ( σ h < 10 − 6 km, i.e. less than a millimetre) for all the heights tested. The method is slightly slower than the method of Fukushima (2006) and Fukushima’s (1999) fast implementation of Bowring’s (1976) method.
The paper presents the problem of assessing the accuracy of reconstructing free-form surfaces in the CMM/CAD/CAM/CNC systems. The system structure comprises a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) PMM 12106 equipped with a contact scanning probe, a 3-axis Arrow 500 Vertical Machining Center, QUINDOS software and Catia software. For the purpose of surface digitalization, a radius correction algorithm was developed. The surface reconstructing errors for the presented system were assessed and analysed with respect to offset points. The accuracy assessment exhibit error values in the reconstruction of a free-form surface in a range of ± 0.02 mm, which, as it is shown by the analysis, result from a systematic error.
This paper presents a comparison of different techniques to capture nominal data for its use in later verification and kinematic parameter identification procedures for articulated arm coordinate measuring machines (AACMM). By using four different probing systems (passive spherical probe, active spherical probe, self-centering passive probe and self-centering active probe) the accuracy and repeatability of captured points has been evaluated by comparing these points to nominal points materialized by a ball-bar gauge distributed in several positions of the measurement volume. Then, by comparing these systems it is possible to characterize the influence of the force over the final results for each of the gauge and probing system configurations. The results with each of the systems studied show the advantages and original accuracy obtained by active probes, and thus their suitability in verification (active probes) and kinematic parameter identification (self-centering active probes) procedures.
Freeform surfaces have wider engineering applications. Designers use B-splines, Non-Uniform Rational B-splines, etc. to represent the freeform surfaces in CAD, while the manufacturers employ machines with controllers based on approximating functions or splines. Different errors also creep in during machining operations. Therefore the manufactured freeform surfaces have to be verified for conformance to design specification. Different points on the surface are probed using a coordinate measuring machine and substitute geometry of surface established from the measured points is compared with the design surface. The sampling points are distributed according to different strategies. In the present work, two new strategies of distributing the points on the basis of uniform surface area and dominant points are proposed, considering the geometrical nature of the surfaces. Metrological aspects such as probe contact and margins to be provided along the sides have also been included. The results are discussed in terms of deviation between measured points and substitute surface as well as between design and substitute surfaces, and compared with those obtained with the methods reported in the literature.
Geometric deviations of free-form surfaces are attributed to many phenomena that occur during machining, both systematic (deterministic) and random in character. Measurements of free-form surfaces are performed with the use of numerically controlled CMMs on the basis of a CAD model, which results in obtaining coordinates of discrete measurement points. The spatial coordinates assigned at each measurement point include both a deterministic component and a random component at different proportions. The deterministic component of deviations is in fact the systematic component of processing errors, which is repetitive in nature. A CAD representation of deterministic geometric deviations might constitute the basis for completing a number of tasks connected with measurement and processing of free-form surfaces. The paper presents the results of testing a methodology of determining CAD models by estimating deterministic geometric deviations. The research was performed on simulated deviations superimposed on the CAD model of a nominal surface. Regression analysis, an iterative procedure, spatial statistics methods, and NURBS modelling were used for establishing the model.
Local geometric deviations of free-form surfaces are determined as normal deviations of measurement points from the nominal surface. Different sources of errors in the manufacturing process result in deviations of different character, deterministic and random. The different nature of geometric deviations may be the basis for decomposing the random and deterministic components in order to compute deterministic geometric deviations and further to introduce corrections to the processing program. Local geometric deviations constitute a spatial process. The article suggests applying the methods of spatial statistics to research on geometric deviations of free-form surfaces in order to test the existence of spatial autocorrelation. Identifying spatial correlation of measurement data proves the existence of a systematic, repetitive processing error. In such a case, the spatial modelling methods may be applied to fitting a surface regression model representing the deterministic deviations. The first step in model diagnosing is to examine the model residuals for the probability distribution and then the existence of spatial autocorrelation.
The beam elements, which are widely used in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) can be treated as isoparametric elements, and by analogy to the classical finite element analysis (FEA) are integrated with standard, spatial Gauss-Legendre quadratures. For this reason, the shape of the ANCF beam cross section is restricted only to the shape of rectangle. In this paper, a distinct method of integration of ANCF elements based on continuum mechanics approach is presented. This method allows for efficient analysis of the ANCF beam elements with circular cross section. The integration of element vectors and matrices is performed by separation of the quadrature into the part that integrate along beam axis and the part that integrate in the beam cross section. Then, an alternative quadrature is used to integrate in the circular shape of the cross section. Since the number of integration points in the alternative quadrature corresponds to the number of points in the standard Gaussian quadrature the change in the shape of the cross section does not affects negatively the element efficiency. The presented method was verified using selected numerical tests. They show good relatively agreement with the reference results. Apart from the analysis of the beams with the circular cross section, a possibility of further modifications in the methods of the element integration is also discussed. Due to the fact that locking influence on the convergence of the element is also observed, the methods of locking elimination in the proposed elements are also considered in the paper.
One of the applications of tether system is in the field of satellite technology, where the mother ship and satellite equipment are connected with a cable. In order to grasp the motion of this kind of tether system in detail, the tether can be effectively modeled as flexible body and dealt by multibody dynamic analysis. In the analysis and modeling of flexible body of tether, large deformation and large displacement must be considered. Multibody dynamic analysis such as Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation with an introduction of the effect of damping force formulation can be used to describe the motion behavior of a flexible body. In this study, a parameter identification technique via an experimental approach is proposed in order to verify the modeling method. An example of swing-up control using the genetic algorithm control approach is performed through simulation and experiment. The validity of the model and availability of motion control based on multibody dynamics analysis are shown by comparison between numerical simulation and experiment.