In contrast to Antarctica, the Arctic was for a long time deprived of an adequate system of multilateral international scientific cooperation. That gap was filled in 1990 by the foundation of a non-governmental International Arctic Science Committee (IASC). In this article, the origin, structure, operation and perspectives of that Committee are presented.
Baltic Europe, i.e. the sea and inland hinterland, form a unique macro-regional unit. Strong collaboration links as well as competition in the Baltic Sea Region are an inherent feature of the region from the beginnings of its civilization development. The article shows the forty-year-long Baltic integration process and the Polish scientific contribution to the process. Since 2004, the Baltic has become an internal EU sea. This fact no doubt strengthened cooperation of the countries around the Baltic Sea. In many spheres, these ties take the form of networking. An important stimulus for further integrations is the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region. Political stabilisation and economic development may transform, in a longer time span, the emerging transnational Baltic Europe into a new economic and cultural European centre.
The Dilemmas of the Kaliningrad Oblast Today. The Kaliningrad Oblast is a Russian exclave on the Baltic Sea neighbouring with the EU countries of Poland and Lithuania. On one hand, the Oblast belongs to the Russian political, economic and defence area, and on the other, it is separated from other parts of the Russian Federation. This specific location affects the nature of the local economy, the dependence on import and a drive towards cooperating with countries abroad. The economic situation of the Kaliningrad Oblast is strictly related to the economic situation of the remaining parts of Russia. Kaliningrad is subject to principles established by the federal centre, and Moscow decides about the most important issues of the region. At the same time, the Oblast makes efforts to provide conditions for social and economic development comparable to the development standards of neighbouring countries. The residents of the Oblast can be characterised by a sense of own identity, their openness to Europe, as well as activeness and entrepreneurship as compared to other Russian citizens. The greatest number of military units in Russia cluster in Kaliningrad Oblast. This potential is continually strengthened with the progressing modernisation of Russian military forces. Small border traffic, initiated in July 21 between the Republic of Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the RF, had a major impact on the animation, volume and the dynamics of cross-border relations and the promotion of Poland. In July 2016, the Polish side suspended the project.
Analiza zmian właściwości mechanicznych drewnianych kasztów górniczych pod wpływem różnych rodzajów obciążenia eksploatacyjnego jest zagadnieniem, którym zajmuje się wiele ośrodków naukowych w kraju i za granicą. Duże zainteresowanie tą tematyką wynika ze wzrostu głębokości prowadzonej eksploatacji, który przyczynia się do wzrostu zarówno wartości ciśnienia pionowego jak i złożoności warunków geologiczno-górniczych oraz intensyfikacji zagrożeń naturalnych. Inną przyczyną jest tendencja zmniejszania się miąższości eksploatowanego złoża. Zarówno w podziemnym górnictwie rudnym, jak i węglowym oraz solnym stosowana jest obudowa kasztowa. Kaszty o różnych konfiguracjach są szczególnie przydatne przy utrzymywaniu wyrobisk za frontem ścianowym oraz do dodatkowego wzmocnienia skrzyżowań wyrobisk górniczych. W szczególności w górnictwie rudnym w miejscach stwierdzonych poszerzeń wyrobisk lub pogorszonych warunków stropowych stosuje się dodatkową obudowę wzmacniającą w postaci kasztów drewnianych (stosów podporowych), które pozostawia się puste lub wypełnia skałą płonną. Podczas prowadzenia podziemnej eksploatacji wytwarzana jest skała płonna, która pochodzi z wyrobisk udostępniających, przygotowawczych oraz z bieżących pól wybierkowych. W przypadku podziemnej eksploatacji rud miedzi skała płonna jest stosowana do wypełniania pustek poeksploatacyjnych jako podsadzka sucha. Ponadto jest wykorzystywana do wypełniania kasztów górniczych, jako sztuczna podpora oraz do utwardzania dróg przewozowych. W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki wytrzymałościowych badań laboratoryjnych przeprowadzonych na modelach kasztów czteropunktowych, wykonanych z bukowych belek drewnianych w skali 1:10, ustawionych poziomo. W badaniach laboratoryjnych zastosowano modele kasztów o wymiarach 200 × 200 × 200 mm oraz 100 × 100 × 100 mm. Określono maksymalne podporności kasztów składających się tylko z belek oraz wypełnionych skałą płonną. Ponadto przedstawiono odkształcenia pionowe kasztu przy maksymalnej sile oraz odkształcenie właściwe. Na podstawie badań laboratoryjnych stwierdzono, że przy wykorzystaniu tej samej ilości drewna oraz zagospodarowaniu skały płonnej wypełnienie czteropunktowych kasztów skałą płonną pozwoliło kilkukrotnie zwiększyć jego podporność.
In this article, Svalbard was presented as place and object of intensive scientific research, carried on under the rule of the 1920 Spitsbergen Treaty, which has transformed the archipelago into a unique political and legal entity, having no counterpart anywhere else in the world. Scientific activities in Svalbard are carried out within an uncommon legal framework, shaped by a body of instruments both of international law and domestic laws of Norway, as well as other countries concerned, while the Spitsbergen Treaty, in despite of its advanced age of 75 years, still remains a workable international instrument, fundamental to the maintenance of law and order within the whole Arctic region. In 1995 two important for Svalbard anniversaries were noted: on 9 February, 75 years of the signing of the Spitsbegren Treaty and on 14 August, 70 years of the Norwegian rule over the archipelago.
The paper presents the long-term project “Online Dictionary of Surnames in Germany” (“Digitales Familiennamenwörterbuch, DFD”), its conception, main objectives, and its technical realisation. By means of representative examples, the paper depicts how the project works along the categories of conflation, validation, specification or revision of etymologies so far proposed in standard references and the development of new ones. Exploiting new digital resources — especially with the help of new findings in surname geography, the surname stock can be captured and analysed all-encompassing and systematically. Surnames of foreign origin like English, French, Italian, Slavic, Baltic or Turkish are also considered. The importance of Slavic roots in German surnames is exemplified by the name Novak (‛new settler’) which ranks position 156 in the total frequency of German surnames. The article’s outlook discusses the importance and possibilities for future cooperation with surname projects in other countries like Poland, with a long-term perspective for a European network of surname dictionaries.
Wejście w życie ustawy o rewitalizacji (Dz.U. z 2015 r. poz. 1777 z późn. zm.) z dniem 18 listopada 2015 r. umożliwiło gminom sprawne planowanie i wdrażanie procesu wyprowadzania obszarów zdegradowanych ze stanu kryzysowego. W ustawie znalazły się kluczowe uregulowania wpływające na programowanie rewitalizacji w Polsce. Jednym z najważniejszych instrumentów jest gminny program rewitalizacji (GPR). Aby móc w pełni wykorzystać potencjał, jaki drzemie w tym dokumencie, należy szukać rozwiązań pozwalających na stworzenie go w jak najbardziej kompleksowej formie. Jednym z przykładów takich działań jest współpraca ośrodka uniwersyteckiego z jednostką samorządu terytorialnego. Można powiedzieć, że dzięki połączeniu wiedzy praktycznej urzędników z wiedzą teoretyczną ekspertów ze środowiska akademickiego uzyskano projekt unikalny w skali kraju. Jest także wyjątkowy dlatego, że w procesie jego tworzenia aktywnie uczestniczyli studenci gospodarki przestrzennej. Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie przebiegu procesu współpracy Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza z urzędem podczas sporządzania Gminnego Programu Rewitalizacji dla miasta Kalisza oraz ukazanie roli, jaką odegrali w tym projekcie studenci.
Polish spatial data infrastructure dates back 2010, the year when the Spatial Information Infrastructure Act transposing INSPIRE Directive entered into force. The present study provides valuable insight into the current status of Polish spatial data infrastructure (PSDI) as well as lessons learnt from so far efforts in implementing the principles and provisions of the INSPIRE Directive. Particular respect is given to policy, interoperability of data as well as cooperation between actors involved in PSDI establishment and maintenance. Data managed by the Surveyor General (SG), perceived as a backbone of a spatial data infrastructure, are of special importance. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations for further developments are given to foster SDI implementation in Poland. Results of the analysis clearly show that Polish spatial data infrastructure is in line with INSPIRE, and in a half of way being fully operational.
Self-fulfilling prophecy is seen as an important phenomenon linking social perception with social interaction, being in line with the assumption that conviction creates reality. The adoption of such a perspective upgrades the rank of expectations, which being in control of human behaviour, permeate all areas of people’s activity. Within the area of interpersonal interaction, its participants either perceive what is expected of them or make assumptions about expectations on the basis of behaviour which is directed towards them. Following this lead, and referring to the possibility of co-operation between teachers and parents, we are confronted with a question whether within the anticipated interaction parents may cope as well, or as badly as it is expected of them by teachers. This article attempts to answer this question as well as to analyse the relationships between teachers and parents through the prism of the idea of self-fulfilling prophecy, bearing in mind that the phenomenon itself consists of extremely complex interaction of cognitive and behavioural factors.
In the last decades borderlands studies have been rapidly developing in various disciplines. Within the changing function of European borders (from separating line between two souvereign states to borderscapes of intercultural flows and fluid identity) the focus of border scholars moved towards social relations and bottom-up perspective. Thus, borderlands are perceived as laboratories of European integration and multicultural spaces. For the aim of this article, borderlands are defined as spaces located on the geographical border between different states, nations and cultures that are objects of European Union cohesion policy. By analysing the Eurobarometer survey on cross-border cooperation I try to demonstrate differences between border regions covered by the Interreg cross-border cooperation programmes in terms of cross-border practices, general trust in others and attitudes towards citizens of neighbouring countries.
Local development, based on the use of endogenous potentials, requires the cooperation of muni-cipalities in urban functional areas (agglomerations). However, conducting joint activities in the area of building and running local development policy is a serious challenge. On the one hand, there is a shortage of experience in this area (not counting the short period of functio-ning municipal unions in the years 1920-1939 and intentional inter-communal relations after 1990). In addition, there are still no legal solutions needed (in addition to the act passed in 2017 for the metropolis of Silesia and Zagłębie). In recent years, however, projects of integra-ted territorial investments and other project partnerships have been implemented under the European Union and the Norwegian Financial Mechanism Programs, which result in prac-tical conclusions and legislative recommendations. The most important of them concern the introduction of a new form of partner cooperation and the adoption of a new urban code. Their quick implementation will enable more eff ective cooperation for development.
The purpose of the author was to indicate the deficiency of development management instruments currently used to the territorialization of policies in stimulating intra- and intersectoral partnership cooperation. Her reflections were based on the results of research commissioned by the Polish Ministry of Development and Investment by a team in which the author participated. These studies have revealed that the weakest impacts of the so-called territorial instruments include the ability to mobilize various stakeholder groups to take action and to create partnership cooperation. Against this background, the author has undertaken the analysis of the potential impact of territorial tools on the partnerships development and has attempted to present recommendations for practice and further research in this area.
According to European Bison Pedigree Book, wisent population in Poland by the end of 2016 counted 1698 individuals, including 1455 animals in freedom. Therefore in Poland, live over 25% of presently living wisents, i.e. the largest population of this species in the world. Next to our state borders, there are free ranging populations in Belarus – Białowieska Forest about 480 individuals, in Ukraine – National Park Beskyd Skolyvski – 33, and Slovakia – National Park Poloniny – 27 wisents. Planned is the establishment of new transboundary populations at Landscape Park of Lower Oder River Valley, at Romincka, and Augustowska Forests. In many places where transboundary populations already exist or are planned, their potential joint home ranges are divided by anthro-pogenic (fencing – Ukraine, Belarus) or natural barriers (Oder River – Germany). The basic prob-lem for creating such populations will be either elimination of such barriers or introduction of passages allowing for animals' movements. Benefits provided by transboundary populations are: larger area of available habitats, a possi-bility for the maintenance of larger populations, and a chance for mitigation of isolation among particular herds. However possible problems include: more difficult population management due to differences in formal status of the species in particular countries, complicated budgeting of costs connected with maintenance of such herds and compensation of damages, and a possibility for a transmission of infectious diseases, not occurring at territory of one of neighbouring countries. Therefore, creation of transboundary populations of wisents is desirable regarding the possibility of extension of their home ranges and increase of effective numbers. Effectiveness of such initiatives will however depend upon a possibility for stable international agreements and routine coopera-tion. Very important is an establishment of an uniform formal status of this species in Europe or at last in EU member countries.
The judgments delivered by the European Court of Human Rights in Al-Nashiri v. Poland and Husayn (Abu Zubaydah) v. Poland highlight the potential tension that may arise between states’ broad reliance on national security grounds to withhold disclosure of secret files and compliance with their obligations under the European Convention on Human Rights. The present article examines the above-mentioned judgments, focusing, in particular, on how (and to what extent) the withholding of secret information may infringe on the right to the truth and, as far as proceedings before the European Court of Human Rights are concerned, the state’s duty to cooperate with it.
We consider fiscal and monetary policy interactions in a monetary unionunder monetary leadership, when the common central bank is concerned with theaverage fiscal stance of the union. We use a static two-country monetary unionmodel to investigate the policy-mix problem under different regimes of non-cooperation, cooperation, and enforced cooperation among fiscal authorities.We find that fiscal policy is unambiguously countercyclical, a feature that ismore pronounced under fiscal policy cooperation. Monetary policy can be eithercountercyclical or procyclical. A central bank concerned about the aggregatefiscal stance is effective in stabilizing output and central budget, but at theexpense of inflation stabilization.
The Author discusses the present state of Polish geography against the background of the traditional position, and the rapid development taking place after the Second World War. The introduction of new methods and new directions, as well as new organization are considered to have been reflected in the rising international position of Polish geography. Further topics here include the relationship between physical and human geography, the growing de facto separation of these two branches, and the development of several independent sciences rooted in geography but now existing apart from it (like geomorphology, climatology, hydrology, etc. on the physical geography side, with the element of the environment as a subject of study). On the other hand, social economic geography examines the effects of human activity in the environment, thereby synthesizing spatial management and bridging the gap between the earth sciences, the economy and the social sciences. The degradation of environmental resources, explosion of the human population and climate change have all forced geography (and other sciences) to head in the global direction, as well as towards interdisciplinary cooperation, likewise on the level of the world as a whole. If we are to meet the challenges this all entails, we will need to think about creating interdisciplinary problem teams, as well as activating existing organisational structures in science (notably the geographical sciences), with full benefit taken from research centres that run studies on differing spatial scales, in conjunction with international global programmes like the Future Earth. The geography of the future should not be a closed science, but should draw on the knowledge of scholars of various specialisations, seeking environmental solutions that require intervention on both the global and regional scales. Polish geography should participate in this activity, inter alia as part of Future Earth, as a new venture. It can also be regarded as our task to ensure that society is aware of all the above issues.
The article is an answer to questions concerning values, goals and functions of the University in the era of globalization changes that enforce changes in the area of higher education. The author emphasizes the need for balanced development of science, humanities and social sciences as a condition for preserving research independence, as well as the importance of cooperation, both in research and in the „shaping of autonomous institutionalism” of the University (Roggero). The article provides an analysis of the commercialization process of research results, based on data from Polish and foreign studies, and indicates its various forms and social costs. This is a study of the University's condition in the face of the growing importance of transnational corporations, regulating not only the flow of capital, but also the distribution of scientific prestige and appropriating in a different way the effects of academic work. The metaphor of the university as a enterprise/knowledge factory visualizes the errors in perceiving the role that it should play. It proves that research and teaching is not the production and transmission of knowledge, but the creation and sharing of knowledge. In this dialogical process, the idea of a university understood as a community of educators and taught in pursuit of truth is achieved most fully, not for glory, for making profit or for gaining a competitive advantage.