The article presents the use of the Mamdani fuzzy reasoning model to develop a proposal of a system controlling partnering relations in construction projects. The system input variables include: current assessments of particular partnering relation parameters, the weights of these parameters’ impact on time, cost, quality and safety of implementation of construction projects, as well as the importance of these project assessment criteria for its manager. For each of the partnering relation parameters, the project’s manager will receive controlrecommendations. Moreover, the parameter to be improved first will be indicated. The article contains a calculation example of the system’s operations.
Hallmark professionalism in probabilistic analysis is to quantify the uncertainties involved in construction materials subject to intrinsic randomness in its physical and mechanical properties and is now gaining popularity in civil engineering arena. As well, knowledge of behaviour of materials is continuously evolving and its statistical descriptors are also changing when more and more data collected or even data updated and hence reliability analysis has to be carried out with the updated data as a continuous process. As per the committee report ACI 544.2R, it is found that there is no attempt made for probabilistic relation between cube compressive strength and cylinder compressive strength for fiber reinforced concrete. In consequence of this report, a robust relation between cube and cylinder of experimentally conducted compressive strength was established by Monte-Carlo simulation technique for different types of fibrous concrete like steel, alkali resistant glass and polyester fibrous concrete before and after thermoshock considering various uncertainties. Nevertheless simulated probabilistic modals, characteristic modals, optimized factor of safety and allowable designed cylinder compressive strength have been developed from the drawn probability of failure graph, which exhibits robust performance in realistic Civil Engineering materials and structures.
Statistical conformity criteria for the compressive strength of concrete are a matter of debate. The criteria can have prejudicial effects on construction quality and reliability. Hence, the usefulness of statistical criteria for the small sample size n = 3 is questioned. These defects can cause a reduction in the quality of produced concrete and, consequently, too much risk for the recipient (investor). For this reason, the influence of conformity control on the value of the reliability index of concrete and reinforced concrete has been determined. The authors limited their consideration to the recommended standards PN-EN 206-1, PN-EN 1992 and ISO 2394 method of reliability index, which belongs to the analytical methods FORM (First Order Reliability Method). It assumes that the random variables are defined by two parameters of the normal distribution or an equivalent normal: the mean and the standard deviation. The impact of conformity control for n = 3 for concrete structures, designed according to the Eurocode 1992, for which the compressive strength of concrete is the capacity dominant parameter (sensitivity factor of dominating resistance parameter according to the FORM is 0.8), has been determined by evaluation of the reliability index.
Control of the technological processes of coal enrichment takes place in the presence of wide disturbances. Thus, one of the basic tasks of the coal enrichment process control systems is the stabilization of coal quality parameters at a preset level. An important problem is the choice of the controller which is robust for a variety of disturbances. The tuning of the controller parameters is no less important in the control process . Many methods of tuning the controller use the dynamic characteristics of the controlled process (dynamic model of the controlled object). Based on many studies it was found that the dynamics of many processes of coal enrichment can be represented by a dynamic model with properties of the inertial element with a time delay. The identification of object parameters (including the time constant) in industrial conditions is usually performed during normal operation (with the influence of disturbances) from this reason, determined parameters of the dynamic model may differ from the parameters of the actual process. The control system with controller parameters tuned on the basis of such a model may not satisfy the assumed control quality requirements. In the paper, the analysis of the influence of changes in object model parameters in the course of the controlled value has been carried out. Research on the controller settings calculated according to parameters T and τ were carried out on objects with other parameter values. In the studies, a sensitivity analysis method was used. The sensitivity analysis for the three methods of tuning the PI controller for the coal enrichment processes control systems characterized by dynamic properties of the inertial element with time delay has been presented. Considerations are performed at various parameters of the object on the basis of the response of the control system for a constant value of set point. The assessment of considered tuning methods based on selected indices of control quality have been implemented.
Self-control is a complex and multifaceted construct that can be regarded as an individual trait that follows its own developmental trajectory. In the presented study we used NAS-50 for the assessment of self-control in adolescents and young adults. Since the questionnaire has not been used before in underage participants we tested its reliability in adolescent and adult samples. We also investigated possible age and gender differences in self-control abilities as well as relations between NAS-50 and behavioral measures of cognitive control and impulsivity. Although the sample was quite small, the reliability of the questionnaire was similar to the results achieved by its authors. According to the predictions in the literature we did not find relations between NAS-50 and behavioral measures of cognitive control and impulsivity. We also did not observe significant age differences in the assessment of self-control abilities. The theoretical relevance of our results is discussed.
This paper presents the design of digital controller for longitudinal aircraft model based on the Dynamic Contraction Method. The control task is formulated as a tracking problem of velocity and flight path angle, where decoupled output transients are accomplished in spite of incomplete information about varying parameters of the system and external disturbances. The design of digital controller based on the pseudo-continuous approach is presented, where the digital controller is the result of continuous-time controller discretization. A resulting output feedback controller has a simple form of a combination of low-order linear dynamical systems and a matrix whose entries depend nonlinearly on certain known process variables. Simulation results for an aircraft model confirm theoretical expectations.
We derive exact and approximate controllability conditions for the linear one-dimensional heat equation in an infinite and a semi-infinite domains. The control is carried out by means of the time-dependent intensity of a point heat source localized at an internal (finite) point of the domain. By the Green’s function approach and the method of heuristic determination of resolving controls, exact controllability analysis is reduced to an infinite system of linear algebraic equations, the regularity of which is sufficient for the existence of exactly resolvable controls. In the case of a semi-infinite domain, as the source approaches the boundary, a lack of L2-null-controllability occurs, which is observed earlier by Micu and Zuazua. On the other hand, in the case of infinite domain, sufficient conditions for the regularity of the reduced infinite system of equations are derived in terms of control time, initial and terminal temperatures. A sufficient condition on the control time, heat source concentration point and initial and terminal temperatures is derived for the existence of approximately resolving controls. In the particular case of a semi-infinite domain when the heat source approaches the boundary, a sufficient condition on the control time and initial temperature providing approximate controllability with required precision is derived.
The LQR (linear quadratic regulator) control problem subject to singular system constitutes a optimization problem in which one must be find an optimal control that satisfy the singular system and simultaneously to optimize the quadratic objective functional. In this paper we establish a sufficient condition to obtain the optimal control of discounted LQR optimization problem subject to disturbanced singular system where the disturbance is time varying. The considered problem is solved by transforming the discounted LQR control problem subject to disturbanced singular system into the normal LQR control problem. Some available results in literatures of the normal LQR control problem be used to find the sufficient conditions for the existence of the optimal control for discounted LQR control problem subject to disturbanced singular system. The final result of this paper is in the form a method to find the optimal control of discounted LQR optimization problem subject to disturbanced singular system. The result shows that the disturbance is vanish with the passage of time.
The study of the subdivision driving technology of a stepper motor and two types of typical acceleration and deceleration curves aims at optimizing the open-loop control performance of the stepper motor. The simulation model of a two-phase hybrid stepper motor open-loop control system is set up based on the mathematical model of the stepper motor, in order to let the stepper motor have the smaller stepper angle, two types of typical acceleration and a deceleration curve algorithm are designed for the real- time online calculation based on the subdivision driving technology. It respectively carries out the simulation analysis for their control effects. The simulation results show that the parabolic acceleration and deceleration curves have a larger maximum in-step rotation angle and the faster dynamic response ability in the same control period, and at the same time, the position tracking error of an intermediate process is smaller.
In this paper, the applications of the multivariate data analysis and optimization on vibration signals from compressors have been tested on the assembly line to identify nonconforming products. The multivariate analysis has wide applicability in the optimization of weather forecasting, agricultural experiments, or, as in this case study, in quality control. The techniques of discriminant analysis and linear program were used to solve the problem. The acceleration and velocity signals used in this work were measured in twenty-five rotating compressors, of which eleven were classified as good baseline compressors and fourteen with manufacturing defects by the specialists in the final acoustic test of the production line. The results obtained with the discriminant analysis separated the conforming and nonconforming groups with a significance level of 0.01, which validated the proposed methodology.
A novel method of active noise control using adaptive radiation sound sources is investigated. A finite element model of a modal enclosed sound field is excited harmonically, representing a noise field in the low-frequency range. The control sources are comprised of elementary dipole sources for which the driving signals are adjusted by an optimization method. Two set-up cases of the proposed compound sources are investigated. The coupling of the control sources with the modal sound field is discussed. The simulated performance of the proposed method is compared with that of a system with distributed simple sources and the results show the effectiveness of the sources with adaptive radiation for active noise control in small enclosures.
The need to generate innovative solutions clearly is closely related with professional activities of special education teachers. The specificity of functioning of people with disabilities, unpredictability of actions and behaviours, developmental disharmoniousness imposes the searching and implementing of customized solutions, improvements and modifications to adjust the educational process to the needs and capabilities of this group of students. The presented beliefs have become the basis for research activities allowing to describe the innovativeness of special education teachers in their workplace. The main aim of this article is to attempt to determine the relationship between innovativeness in the workplace and locus of control in special education teachers group.
An electric power steering system (EPS) is a new type of steering system developed after a mechanical hydraulic power system (MHPS) and electric-hydraulic power steering system (EHPS). In order to coordinate and solve the portability and sensitivity of the steering system optimally, taking an induction power steering system as the research object, the control algorithm of induction motor control under the EPS is studied in this paper. In order to eliminate the feed-forward performance degradation caused by the change of feed-forward parameters, an on-line identification algorithm of feed-forward parameters is proposed. It can improve the control performance of online identification among three feed-forward parameters in the T-axle motor, it improves on the robustness of feed-forward control performance, at the same time it also gives simulation and test results. This method can improve the control performance of the three feed-forward parameter online identification of the T-axis motor and improve the robustness of feed-forward control performance. At the same time, simulation and test results are given. The simulation results show that the algorithm can significantly improve the response speed and control accuracy of EPS system control.
The aim of this study is to design a control strategy for the angular rate (speed) of a DC motor by varying the terminal voltage. This paper describes various designs for the control of direct current (DC) motors. We derive a transfer function for the system and connect it to a controller as feedback, taking the applied voltage as the system input and the angular velocity as the output. Different strategies combining proportional, integral, and derivative controllers along with phase lag compensators and lead integral compensators are investigated alongside the linear quadratic regulator. For each controller transfer function, the step response, root locus, and Bode plot are analysed to ascertain the behaviour of the system, and the results are compared to identify the optimal strategy. It is found that the linear quadratic controller provides the best overall performance in terms of steady-state error, response time, and system stability. The purpose of the study that took place was to design the most appropriate controller for the steadiness of DC motors. Throughout this study, analytical means like tuning methods, loop control, and stability criteria were adopted. The reason for this was to suffice the preconditions and obligations. Furthermore, for the sake of verifying the legitimacy of the controller results, modelling by MATLAB and Simulink was practiced on every controller.
We study an elegant snap system with only one nonlinear term, which is a quadratic nonlinearity. The snap systemdisplays chaotic attractors,which are controlled easily by changing a system parameter. By using analysis, simulations and a real circuit, the dynamics of such a snap system has been investigated. We also investigate backstepping based adaptive control schemes for the new snap system with unknown parameters.
This paper presents a robust model free controller (RMFC) for a class of uncertain continuous-time single-input single-output (SISO) minimum-phase nonaffine-in-control systems. Firstly, the existence of an unknown dynamic inversion controller that can achieve control objectives is demonstrated. Afterwards, a fast approximator is designed to estimate as best as possible this dynamic inversion controller. The proposed robust model free controller is an equivalent realization of the designed fast approximator. The perturbation theory and Tikhonov’s theorem are used to analyze the stability of the overall closed-loop system. The performance of the developped controller are verified experimentally in the position control of a pneumatic actuator system.
Although the explicit commutativitiy conditions for second-order linear time-varying systems have been appeared in some literature, these are all for initially relaxed systems. This paper presents explicit necessary and sufficient commutativity conditions for commutativity of second-order linear time-varying systems with non-zero initial conditions. It has appeared interesting that the second requirement for the commutativity of non-relaxed systems plays an important role on the commutativity conditions when non-zero initial conditions exist. Another highlight is that the commutativity of switched systems is considered and spoiling of commutativity at the switching instants is illustrated for the first time. The simulation results support the theory developed in the paper.
High voltage direct current (HVDC) emergency control can significantly improve the transient stability of an AC/DC interconnected power grid, and is an important measure to reduce the amount of generator and load shedding when the system fails. For the AC/DC interconnected power grid, according to the location of failure, disturbances can be classified into two categories: 1) interconnected system tie-line faults, which will cause the power unbalance at both ends of the AC system, as a result of the generator rotor acceleration at the sending-end grid and the generator rotor deceleration at the receiving-end grid; 2) AC system internal faults, due to the isolation effect of the DC system, only the rotor of the generator in the disturbed area changes, which has little impact on the other end of the grid. In view of the above two different locations of disturbance, auxiliary power and frequency combination control as well as a switch strategy, are proposed in this paper. A four-machine two-area transmission system and a multi-machine AC/DC parallel transmission system were built on the PSCAD platform. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
In multi-axis motion control systems, the tracking errors of single axis load and the contour errors caused by the mismatch of dynamic characteristics between the moving axes will affect the accuracy of the motion control system. To solve this issue, a biaxial motion control strategy based on double-iterative learning and cross-coupling control is proposed. The proposed control method improves the accuracy of the motion control system by improving individual axis tracking performance and contour tracking performance. On this basis, a rapid control prototype (RCP) is designed, and the experiment is verified by the hardware and software platforms, LabVIEW and Compact RIO. The whole design shows enhancement in the precision of the motion control of the multiaxis system. The performance in individual axis tracking and contour tracking is greatly improved.
Due to different reasons a significant modal shift from railway to road transport took place over last decades. The basic reasons are pointed in the paper introduction together with contradicting transport policy taking into account environmental and economical challenges. Political vision to stimulate modal shift from road and air to railway cannot become true without achieving railway technical and operational interoperability. Paper describes wide range of technical barriers between individual intraoperable railway systems in civil engineering structures, traction power supply, control command and signalling and the ways, which are being applied to ensure stepwise converging of the technical solutions taking into account safety and technical compatibility, as well as other essential requirements, namely: reliability, accessibility, health and environment.
Research activities of Polish research groups in a period of 2015–2019 on reference frames and reference networks are reviewed and summarised in this paper. The summary contains the results concerning the implementation of latest resolutions on reference systems of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics and the International Union of Astronomy with special emphasis on the changes in the Astronomical Almanac of the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw. It further presents the status of the implementation of the European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRS89) in Poland, monitoring the terrestrial reference frame, operational work of GNSS permanent IGS/EPN stations in Poland, operational work of the laser ranging station in Poland of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), active GNSS station network for the realization of ETRS89 in Poland, validation of recent ETRS89 realization, expressed in ETRF2000 in Poland, and maintenance of the vertical control in Poland (PL-KRON86-NH). Extensive research activities are observed in the field of maintenance and modernization of gravity control not only in Poland, but also in Sweden and in Denmark, as well as establishment of gravity control in Ireland based on absolute gravity survey. The magnetic control in Poland was also regularly maintained. The bibliography of the related works is given in references.
The paper presents the control concept for an experimental rig with closed-loop controlled pneumatic axis. The objective is the convenient execution of diverse control technologic experiments using free implementable control structures. Since two actuators can be mechanically linked to one another, one is force controlled to generate defined disturbances. Furthermore, a particular simulation model, which can be integrated in the controllers' user program, is pointed out including non-linear effects. Finally, selected experiments are discussed.
The paper raises the issue of controlling rural low voltage microgrids in an optimal manner. The impact of different criterion functions, related to the amount of energy exchanged with the distribution system operator network, the level of active power losses, the amount of energy generated by different energy sources and the value of financial performance measures regarding the microgrid operation, on the choice of operating points for devices suggested by the optimization algorithm has been analyzed. Both island and synchronous microgrid operation modes are being considered. We propose two variants of the optimization procedure: the first one is based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm and centralized control logic, and the second one takes advantage of the decentralized approach and Monte Carlo methods. A comparison of the simulation results for two sample rural microgrids, obtained for different objective functions, microgrid operation modes and optimization procedure variants, with the use of prepared algorithm implementations, has been provided. The results show that the proper choice of an objective function can have a crucial impact on the optimization algorithm’s behavior, the choice of operating points and, as a consequence, on microgrid behavior as well. The choice of the proper form of the objective function is the responsibility of the person in charge of both the microgrid itself and its operation. This paper can contribute towards making correct decisions in this area. Generally, slightly better results have been achieved for the centralized control mode of operation. Nevertheless, the results also suggest that in many cases the approach based on distributed logic can return results that are better or sufficiently close to the ones provided by the centralized and more sophisticated approach.
The paper considers a digital design of time-invariant systems in the case of step-invariant (ZOH), bilinear (Tustin's) and fractional order hold (FROH) discretization methods. The design problem is formulated as linear matrix inequalities (LMI). A closed-loop stability of the digitally designed control systems is discussed.