A new method for computation of positive realizations of given transfer matrices of fractional linear continuous-time linear systems is proposed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of positive realizations of transfer matrices are given. A procedure for computation of the positive realizations is proposed and illustrated by examples.
In this paper, the author compares the of characteristics of subsystems obtained by the approximate and exact method in order to answer to the question - if the approximate method can be used to nominate the characteristics of mechatronic systems. Frequency - modal analysis has been presented for a mechanical system, i.e. transverse-vibrating clamped-free beam. Consequently, the model of the beam was presented in a five-vertex hypergraph. This model, in the case of approximate frequency-modal analysis, can be imitated in a three-vertex hypergraph. Such formulation could be the introduction to synthesis of transverse-vibrating complex beam systems with constant cross-section.
New frequency domain methods for stability analysis of linear continuous-time fractional order systems with delays of the retarded type are given. The methods are obtained by generalisation to the class of fractional order systems with delays of the Mikhailov stability criterion and the modified Mikhailov stability criterion known from the theory of natural order systems without and with delays. The study is illustrated by numerical examples of time-delay systems of commensurate and non-commensurate fractional orders.
Coal mining activities carried out for 200 years in Upper Silesia have had a negative effect on buildings. T his impact is in all cases related with continuous deformations of the surface and in certain cases with discontinuous deformations (mostly cave-ins), changes in water relations and mining tremors. T he paper presents an evaluation of the impact of a mining activity on a building situated in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. T he building was affected by continuous deformations and mining tremors. Calculations were made of the values of deformation rates by means of Budryk–Knothe’s theory, which were partly verified on the basis of the results from geodetic measurements. An analysis of the velocity and acceleration of basement vibrations caused by mining-induced tremors was also conducted. T he conclusions included a high consistency between the results obtained on the basis of calculations and the values obtained by means of PGA and PGV measurements. In the case of tremors with the highest energy in the hipocentrum, there an empirical formula allowing for calculation of PGA value in given geological and mining conditions was also proposed. T he application range of the formula mentioned above is obviously limited only to the conditions in consideration. The presented conclusions indicate that at present, sufficiently precise methods, allowing for calculations for practical purposes, not only of deformation indices’ values, but also of PGV and PGA values, presently exist.
Searching and exploring the motives of continuing in the profession may be an important objective of efforts undertaken by researchers and people directly responsible for the organization and quality of work. Identifying the needs and expectations of the employee is an important element of her/his adaptation in the work environment. Because the age of life is one of the factors affecting the perception of the world and work, in this article motives of continuing professional activity in group of special educators are described in the age of life context.
The article concerns problems with shaping contemporary housing estates. By analyzing housing structures designed in recent years, the aim was to demonstrate the importance of creating the continuity of public spaces in order to achieve places seen as attractive and presenting features of high quality urban space. Essential for the research is the question about the conditions which should be fulfi lled when creating the ideal residential place which then leads to a series of answers. These included indicating a good location with functional and aesthetic urban/architectural solutions. Environmental issues are important as well. Regardless of whether it is a multi-family dwelling or a single family house, a good neighborhood and its location in a well-connected place with necessary basic services within walking range are important. It is also signifi cant how the public space was shaped and whether a natural network was created. Due to factors such as the specifi city of the structure’s location in the city and diff erent surfaces of designed estates, as well as the variety of residential buildings being constructed, it is often diffi cult to assess them unambiguously. Importantly, this assessment also includes social and economic aspects as well as technical issues. However, by using multi-directional research it can be noted that the forms of public spaces within housing complexes play an important role in the creation of high-quality structures, perceived as attractive not only by the residents.
The positivity and absolute stability of a class of nonlinear continuous-time and discretetime systems are addressed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the positivity of this class of nonlinear systems are established. Sufficient conditions for the absolute stability of this class of nonlinear systems are also given.
Purpose: to demonstrate the possibility of finding features reliable for more precise distinguishing between normal and abnormal Pattern Electroretinogram (PERG) recordings, in Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) coefficients domain. To determine characteristic features of the PERG and Pattern Visual Evoked Potential (PVEP) waveforms important in the task of precise classification and assessment of these recordings. Material and methods: 60 normal PERG waveforms and 60 PVEPs as well as 47 PERGs and 27 PVEPs obtained in some retinal and optic nerve diseases were studied in the two age groups (<= 50 years, > 50 years). All these signals were recorded in accordance with the guidelines of ISCEV in the Laboratory of Electrophysiology of the Retina and Visual Pathway and Static Perimetry, at the Department and Clinic of Ophthalmology of the Pomeranian Medical University. Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) was used for the time-frequency analysis and modelling of the PERG signal. Discriminant analysis and logistic regression were performed in statistical analysis of the PERG and PVEP signals. Obtained mathematical models were optimized using Fisher F(n1; n2) test. For preliminary evaluation of the obtained classification methods and algorithms in clinical practice, 22 PERGs and 55 PVEPs were chosen with respect to especially difficult discrimination problems (borderline recordings). Results: comparison between the method using CWT and standard time-domain based analysis showed that determining the maxima and minima of the PERG waves was achieved with better accuracy. This improvement was especially evident in waveforms with unclear peaks as well as in noisy signals. Predictive, quantitative models for PERGs and PVEPs binary classification were obtained based on characteristic features of the waveform morphology. Simple calculations algorithms for clinical applications were elaborated. They proved effective in distinguishing between normal and abnormal recordings. Conclusions: CWT based method is efficient in more precise assessment of the latencies of the PERG waveforms, improving separation between normal and abnormal waveforms. Filtering of the PERG signal may be optimized based on the results of the CWT analysis. Classification of the PERG and PVEP waveforms based on statistical methods is useful in preliminary interpretation of the recordings as well as in supporting more accurate assessment of clinical data.