In the article we study a model of TCP connection with Active Queue Managementin an intermediate IP router. We use the fluid flow approximation technique to model the interactions between the set of TCP flows and AQM algoithms. Computations for fluid flow approximation model are performed in the CUDA environment.
In the article we study a model of network transmissions with Active Queue Management in an intermediate IP router. We use the OMNET++ discrete event simulator to model the varies variants of the CHOKe algoithms. We model a system where CHOKe, xCHOKe and gCHOKe are the AQM policy. The obtained results shows the behaviour of these algorithms. The paper presents also the implementation of AQM mechanisms in the router based on Linux.
This paper presents non-linear mathematical model of a computer network with a part of wireless network. The article contains an analysis of the stability of the network based on TCP-DCR, which is a modification of the traditional TCP. Block diagram of the network model was converted to a form in order to investigate the D-stability using the method of the space of uncertain parameters. Robust D-stability is calculated for constant delays values.
The article refers to the idea of using the software defined network (SDN) as an effective hardware and software platform enabling the creation and dynamic management of distributed ICT infrastructure supporting the rapid prototyping process. The authors proposed a new layered reference model remote distributed rapid prototyping that allows the development of heterogeneous, open systems of rapid prototyping in a distributed environment. Next, the implementation of this model was presented in which the functioning of the bottom layers of the model is based on the SDN architecture. Laboratory tests were carried out for this implementation which allowed to verify the proposed model in the real environment, as well as determine its potential and possibilities for further development. Thus, the approach described in the paper may contribute to the development and improvement of the efficiency of rapid prototyping processes which individual components are located in remote industrial, research and development units. Thanks to this, it will be possible to better integrate production processes as well as optimize the costs associated with prototyping. The proposed solution is also a response in this regard to the needs of industry 4.0 in the area of creating scalable, controllable and reliable platforms.
Human brain is “the perfect guessing machine” (James V. Stone (2012) Vision and Brain, Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, p. 155), trying to interpret sensory data in the light of previous biases or beliefs. Bayesian inference is carried out by three complex networks of the human brain: salience network, central executive network, and default mode network. Their function is analysed both in neurotypical person and Attention Deficit Disorder. Modern human being having predictive brain and overloaded mind must develop social identity, whose evolution went probably through three stages: social selection based on punishment, sexual selection based on reputation, and group selection based on identity.
The level of sales of a given good depends largely on the distribution network. An analysis of the distribution network allows companies to optimize business activity, which improves the efficiency and profitability of a company’s sales with an immediate effect on profit growth. The so-called spatial analysis is highly useful in this regard. The paper presents an analysis of the network of authorized dealers of the Polish Mining Group for the Opolskie Province. The analysis was done using GIS (SIP) tools. The purpose of the analysis was to present tools that could be used to verify an existing distribution network, to optimize it, or to create a new sales outlet. The prresented tools belong to GIS operations used to process data stored in Spatial Information System resources. These are so-called geoprocessing tools. The article contains several spatial analyses, which results in choosing the optimum location of the distribution point in terms of the defined criteria. The used tools include a spatial intersection and sum. Geocoding and the so-called cartodiagram were also used. The presented analysis can be performed for both the network of authorized retailers within a region, a city or an entire country. The presented tools provide the opportunity to specify the target consumers, areas where they are located and areas of potential consumer concentration. This allows the points of sale in areas with a high probability of finding new customers to be located, which enables the optimal location to be chosen, for example, in terms of access to roads, rail transport, locations of the right area and neighborhood. Spatial analysis tools will also enable the coal company to verify its already existing distribution network.
A gigantic amounts of data and information on molecules that constitute the very complex cell machinery have been collected, classified and stored in data banks. Although we posses enormous amount of knowledge about the properties and functions of thousands of molecular entities, we are still far from understanding how they do work in a living cell. It is clear now that these molecules (genes, proteins) are not autonomous, that there is no direct linear relation between genotype and phenotype, and that the majority of functions are carried and executed by concerted molecular activity, and that the majority of diseases are multifactorial. A basic property of the matter in a living cell (both normal and pathologic) is an interaction between variety of macromolecules, mainly proteins, genes (DNA) etc. In a process of self-organization they are able to form an active molecular biologic system – a complex, labile and dynamic network which integrity is secured by non-covalent bounds. In this essay some basic properties of network structure and the universal rules that govern them are described. Network or system biology is promising new research approach in biology and medicine.
AbstractThe stability of fractional standard and positive continuous-time linear systems with state matrices in integer and rational powers is addressed. It is shown that the fractional systems are asymptotically stable if and only if the eigenvalues of the state matrices satisfy some conditions imposed on the phases of the eigenvalues. The fractional standard systems are unstable if the state matrices have at least one positive eigenvalue.
AbstractThe classical Cayley-Hamilton theorem is extended to Drazin inverse matrices and to standard inverse matrices. It is shown that knowing the characteristic polynomial of the singular matrix or nonsingular matrix, it is possible to write the analog Cayley-Hamilton equations for Drazin inverse matrix and for standard inverse matrices.
AbstractThe Caputo-Fabrizio definition of the fractional derivative is applied to minimum energy control of fractional positive continuous- time linear systems with bounded inputs. Conditions for the reachability of standard and positive fractional linear continuous-time systems are established. The minimum energy control problem for the fractional positive linear systems with bounded inputs is formulated and solved.
AbstractThis paper describes a new method of determining the reactive power factor. The reactive power factor herein is calculated on the basis of time samples and not] with the Fourier transform of signals, like it was done previously. The new reactive power factor calculation results from the receiver admittance-operator decomposition into the product of self-adjoint and unitary operators. This is an alternative decomposition to another one, namely into a sum of the Hermitian and skew-Hemiitian operators.
AbstractThe paper presents the problem of estimating in-situ compressive strength of concrete in a comprehensive way, taking into account the possibility of direct tests of cored specimens and indirect methods of non-destructive tests: rebound hammer tests and ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements. The paper approaches the discussed problem in an original, scientifically documented and exhaustive way, in particular in terms of application.
AbstractPositive descriptor fractional discrete-time linear systems with fractional different orders are addressed in the paper. The decomposition of the regular pencil is used to extend necessary and sufficient conditions for positivity of the descriptor fractional discrete-time linear system with different fractional orders. A method for finding the decentralized controller for the class of positive systems is proposed and its effectiveness is demonstrated on a numerical example.
AbstractThis paper describes how to calculate the number of algebraic operations necessary to implement block matrix inversion that occurs, among others, in mathematical models of modern positioning systems of mass storage devices. The inversion method of block matrices is presented as well. The presented form of general formulas describing the calculation complexity of inverted form of block matrix were prepared for three different cases of division into internal blocks. The obtained results are compared with a standard Gaussian method and the “inv” method used in Matlab. The proposed method for matrix inversion is much more effective in comparison in standard Matlab matrix inversion “inv” function (almost two times faster) and is much less numerically complex than standard Gauss method.
Rockburst is a common engineering geological hazard. In order to evaluate rockburst liability in kimberlite at an underground diamond mine, a method combining generalized regression neural networks (GRNN) and fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA) is employed. Based on two fundamental premises of rockburst occurrence, depth, σθ, σc, σt, B1, B2, SCF, Wet are determined as indicators of rockburst, which are also input vectors of GRNN model. 132 groups of data obtained from rockburst cases from all over the world are chosen as training samples to train the GRNN model; FOA is used to seek the optimal parameter σ that generates the most accurate GRNN model. The trained GRNN model is adopted to evaluate burst liability in kimberlite pipes. The same eight rockburst indicators are acquired from lab tests, mine site and FEM model as test sample features. Evaluation results made by GRNN can be confirmed by a rockburst case at this mine. GRNN do not require any prior knowledge about the nature of the relationship between the input and output variables and avoid analyzing the mechanism of rockburst, which has a bright prospect for engineering rockburst potential evaluation.
In the last decade, Poland has become one of the most active markets for unconventional hydrocarbon deposits exploration. At present, there are twenty concessions for the exploration and/or discovery of reserves, including shale gas. The area covered by exploration concessions constitutes ca. 7.5% of the country’s area. Four main stages can be distinguished In the shale gas development and exploitation project: the selection and preparation of the place of development of the wells, hydraulic drilling and fracturing, exploitation (production) and marketing, exploitation suppression and land reclamation. In the paper, the concept of cost analysis of an investment project related to the exploration and development of a shale gas field/area was presented. The first two stages related to the preparatory work, carried out on the selected site, as well as drilling and hydraulic fracturing were analyzed. For economic reasons, the only rational way to make shale gas reserves available is to use horizontal drilling, either singly or in groups. The number of drilling pads covering the concession area is a fundamental determinant of the development cost of the deposit. In the paper, the results of the cost analysis of various types of reaming method with an area of 25,000,000 m2 were presented. Cost estimates were prepared for two variants: group drilling for three types of drilling pads: with three, five and seven wells and for single wells. The results show that, as the number of horizontal wells increases, the total cost of the development of the deposit is reduced. For tree-wells pad, these costs are 7% lower than in the second variant, for five-well pads they are 11% lower, and for seven-well pads they are 11.5% smaller than in the second variant. Authors, using applied methodology, indicate the direction of further research that will enable the optimization of shale gas drilling operations.
This article analyses a hierarchical structure of academia within two academic social media networking sites, i.e. Academia.edu and ResearchGate. In this study, I investigate profiles (in these two services) of all academic staff members of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (N = 2661). I use the concept of prestige to analyse whether the hierarchical structure of academia is being reproduced in analysed services. Since prestige is an unobservable construct, I use two indicators to measure it: the number of followers and the number of views. My findings show that the hierarchical structure differs between Academia.edu and Research- Gate. While the structure of ResearchGate is explicitly hierarchical in reference to degrees of the researchers (a higher degree is related to a higher value of the prestige indicators), the structure of Academia.edu resembles a reversed pyramid (a higher degree is related to a lower value of the prestige indicators). The article concludes with a discussion concerning possible causes of differences between services in terms of reproducing the hierarchical structure. Moreover, I provide potential implications of the results as well as the justification of the necessity of using the concept of prestige to determine hierarchical structure of academia.
In the last few years, a great attention was paid to the deep learning Techniques used for image analysis because of their ability to use machine learning techniques to transform input data into high level presentation. For the sake of accurate diagnosis, the medical field has a steadily growing interest in such technology especially in the diagnosis of melanoma. These deep learning networks work through making coarse segmentation, conventional filters and pooling layers. However, this segmentation of the skin lesions results in image of lower resolution than the original skin image. In this paper, we present deep learning based approaches to solve the problems in skin lesion analysis using a dermoscopic image containing skin tumor. The proposed models are trained and evaluated on standard benchmark datasets from the International Skin Imaging Collaboration (ISIC) 2018 Challenge. The proposed method achieves an accuracy of 96.67% for the validation set .The experimental tests carried out on a clinical dataset show that the classification performance using deep learning-based features performs better than the state-of-the-art techniques.
Usually, cellular networks are modeled by placing each tier (e.g macro, pico and relay nodes) deterministically on a grid. When calculating the metric performances such as coverage probability, these networks are idealized for not considering the interference. Overcoming such limitation by realistic models is much appreciated. This paper considered two- tier twohop cellular network, each tier is consisting of two-hop relay transmission, relay nodes are relaying the message to the users that are in the cell edge. In addition, the locations of the relays, base stations (BSs), and users nodes are modeled as a point process on the plane to study the two hop downlink performance. Then, we obtain a tractable model for the k-coverage probability for the heterogeneous network consisting of the two-tier network. Stochastic geometry and point process theory have deployed to investigate the proposed two-hop scheme. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness and analytical tractability to study the heterogeneous performance.
Mining ventilation should ensure in the excavations required amount of air on the basis of determined regulations and to mitigate various hazards. These excavations are mainly: longwalls, function chambers and headings. Considering the financial aspect, the costs of air distribution should be as low as possible and due to mentioned above issues the optimal air distribution should be taken into account including the workers safety and minimization of the total output power of main ventilation fans. The optimal air distribution is when the airflow rate in the mining areas and functional chambers are suitable to the existing hazards, and the total output power of the main fans is at a minimal but sufficient rate. Restructuring of mining sector in Poland is usually connected with the connection of different mines. Hence, dependent air streams (dependent air stream flows through a branch which links two intake air streams or two return air streams) exist in ventilation networks of connected mines. The zones of intake air and return air include these air streams. There are also particular air streams in the networks which connect subnetworks of main ventilation fans. They enable to direct return air to specified fans and to obtain different airflows in return zone. The new method of decreasing the costs of ventilation is presented in the article. The method allows to determine the optimal parameters of main ventilation fans (fan pressure and air quantity) and optimal air distribution can be achieved as a result. Then the total output power of the fans is the lowest which makes the reduction of costs of mine ventilation. The new method was applied for selected ventilation network. For positive regulation (by means of the stoppings) the optimal air distribution was achieved when the total output power of the fans was 253.311 kW and for most energy-intensive air distribution it was 409.893 kW. The difference between these cases showed the difference in annual energy consumption which was 1 714 MWh what was related to annual costs of fan work equaled 245 102 Euro. Similar values for negative regulation (by means of auxiliary fans) were: the total output power of the fans 203.359 kW (optimal condition) and 362.405 kW (most energy-intensive condition). The difference of annual energy consumption was 1 742 MWh and annual difference of costs was 249 106 Euro. The differences between optimal airflows considering positive and negative regulations were: the total output power of fans 49.952 kW, annual energy consumption 547 MWh, annual costs 78 217 Euro.
The establishment of the Research Network Lukasiewicz (RNL) is aimed at strengthening the research potential and knowledge transfer from research institutes to enterprises. The article presents the results of the research potential analysis of 38 research institutes that are to form the RNL, based on data on scientific publications in 2013–2016. The number of publications of RNL institutes was similar to the number of publications of TNO and VTT institutes but smaller than that of Fraunhofer institutes. The publications of RNL institutes had lower values of indicators of international collaboration and collaboration with business as well as lower values of citation indices. Co-authors of RNL publications were mainly affiliated with national scientific units, whereas co-authorship with Fraunhofer, TNO and VTT institutes was marginal. The article also outlines the limitations and challenges of the adopted research method and future research orientations in this area.