Ultrasonic processing in the cavitation mode is used to produce the composite materials based on the metal matrix and reinforcing particles of micro- and nano-sizes. In such a case, the deagglomeration of aggregates and the uniform distribution of particles are the expected effects. Although the particles can not only fragment in the acoustic field, they also can coagulate, coarsen and precipitate. In this paper, a theoretical study of processes of deagglomeration and coagulation of particles in the liquid metal under ultrasonic treatment is made. The influence of various parameters of ultrasound and dispersion medium on the dynamics of particles in the acoustic field is considered on the basis of the proposed mathematical model. The criterion of leading process (coagulation or deagglomeration) has been proposed. The calculated results are compared with the experimental ones known from the scientific literature.
The suspension of the copper droplets in the post-processing slag taken directly from the KGHM-Polska Miedź S.A. Factory (from the direct-to-blister technology as performed in the flash furnace) was subjected to the special treatment with the use of the one of the typical industrial reagent and with the complex reagent newly patented by the authors. This treatment was performed in the BOLMET S.A. Company in the semi-industrial conditions. The result of the CaCO3, and Na2CO3 chemicals influence on the coagulation and subsequent sedimentation of copper droplets on the crucible bottom were subjected to comparison with the sedimentation forced by the mentioned complex reagent. The industrial chemicals promoted the agglomeration of copper droplets but the coagulation was arrested / blocked by the formation of the lead envelope. Therefore, buoyancy force forced the motion of the partially coagulated copper droplets towards the liquid slag surface rather than sedimentation on the crucible bottom. On the other hand, the complex reagent was able to influence the mechanical equilibrium between copper droplets and some particles of the liquid slag as well as improve the slag viscosity. Finally, the copper droplets coagulated successfully and generally, were subjected to a settlement on the crucible bottom as desired / requested.
The scope of work included the launch of the process of refining slag suspension in a gas oven using a variety of technological additives. After the refining process (in the context of copper recovery), an assessment of the effect of selected reagents at the level of the slag refining suspension (in terms of copper recovery). Method sieve separated from the slag waste fraction of metallic, iron - silicate and powdery waste. Comparison of these photographs macroscopic allowed us to evaluate the most advantageous method of separating metallic fraction from the slag. After applying the sample A (with KF2 + NaCl) we note that in some parts of the slag are still large amounts of metallic fraction. The fraction of slag in a large majority of the elements has the same size of 1 mm, and a larger portion of the slag, the size of which is from 2 to 6 mm. Definitely the best way is to remove the copper by means of the component B (with NaCl ) and D (with KF2 ). However, as a result of removing the copper by means of component C (with CaO) were also obtained a relatively large number of tiny droplets of copper, which was problematic during segregation. In both cases we were able to separate the two fractions in a fast and simple manner.
Acoustic radiation sources are successfully applied to cleaning rooms from dust of fairly large particle sizes (ten micrometers and larger). The sedimentation of fine aerosols (particle diameter of 1-10 microns) is a more complicated challenge. The paper is devoted to the substantiation of the acoustic sedimentation method for such aerosols. On the basis of the mathematical model analysis for aerosol sedimentation by the acoustic field the mechanisms of this process have been determined and include the particle coagulation acceleration and radiation pressure effect. The experimental results of the acoustic sedimentation of a model aerosol (NaCl) are shown. The calculation results according to the mathematical model for coagulation and sedimentation, on the basis of the Smolukhovsky’s equation taking into account various mechanisms of aerosol sedimentation by sound depending on the particle sizes and sound intensity, are given. The necessity to use intensive sources of high-frequency sound has been confirmed, suggesting that these sources must be located above dust clouds.
The article presents the results of research aimed at increase of the efficiency of gas cleaning equipment based on the Venturi tube using high-intensity ultrasound. The model based on known laws of hydrodynamics of multiphase mediums of dust-extraction in Venturi scrubbers was proposed. Modification of this model taking into account ultrasonic field allows evaluating optimum modes (sound pressure level) and conditions (direction of ultrasonic field, square and number of ultrasonic sources) of ultrasonic influence. It is evaluated that optimum for efficient gas cleaning is the mode of ultrasonic action at the frequency of 22 kHz with sound pressure level of 145. . . 155 dB at the installation of two radiators with area of 0.14 m2, four radiators with area of 0.11 m2 or six radiators with area of 0.08 m2 at the angle of 45 degrees to the axis of Venturi tube. Numerical calculations showed that realization of ultrasonic action is the most efficient for the reduction (up to 15 times) of the content of fine-dispersed fraction (2 μm and less), which is impossible to extract without ultrasonic action. The received theoretical results were confirmed by industrial testing by typical dust-extraction plant and used as foundations of development of apparatuses with the radiators of various sizes.
The suspension of copper droplets in the slag is considered. The copper/slug suspension is delivered as the product from the direct-toblister process which is applied in the KGHM – Polska Miedź (Polish Copper) S.A. factory. The droplets / slag suspension was treated by a special set of reagents (patented by the authors) to improve the coagulation process. On the other hand, the observations are made to estimate if the melting / reduction process in the furnace is sufficiently effective to avoid a remaining of carbon in the copper droplets. The coagulation process was carried out in the crucible (laboratory scale). However, conditions imposed to the coagulation / solidification process in the laboratory scale were to some extent similar to those applied usually in the industry when the suspension is subjected to the analogous treatment in the electric arc-furnace. Some suggestions are formulated how to improve the industrial direct-to-blister process.
Coagulation and solidification of the copper droplets suspend in the liquid slag are usually accompanied by the appearance of the Cu-Cu2O eutectic. Locally, this eutectic is created in the stationary state. Therefore, frequently it has a directional morphology. Since the E = (Zn) + Zn16Ti – eutectic is similar in the asymmetry of the phase diagram to the Cu-Cu2O – eutectic, the (Zn) single crystal strengthened by the E = (Zn) + Zn16Ti precipitate is subjected to directional growth by the Bridgman’s system and current analysis. Experimentally, the strengthening layers (stripes) are generated periodically in the (Zn) – single crystal as a result of the cyclical course of precipitation which accompanies the directional solidification. These layers evince diversified eutectic morphologies like irregular rods, regular lamellae, and regular rods. The L – shape rods of the Zn16Ti – intermetallic compound appear within the first range of the growth rates when the irregular eutectic structure is formed. Next, the branched rods transform into regular rods and subsequently the regular rods into regular lamellae transitions can be recorded. The regular lamellae exist only within a certain range of growth rates. Finally, the regular rods re-appear at some elevated growth rates. The entropy production per unit time and unit volume is calculated for the regular eutectic growth. It will allow to formulate the entropy production per unit time for both eutectic structure: rod-like and lamellar one.