Phytoplankton composition plays a major role in biogeochemical cycles of the ocean. The intensity of carbon fixation and export is strongly dependent on the phytoplankton community. Yet, the contribution of different types of phytoplankton to the total production on various communities is still poorly understood in the Indian Ocean sector of Southern Ocean (SO). Therefore the variability of chlorophyll- A (Chl-a) and diatoms in the frontal ecosystems of the Indian sector of SO have been investigated along with the sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface wind (SSW), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and nutrients datasets for the period of 1998-2012. Combined analysis of in-situ, model and satellite observations indicate that the variability of Chl- A and diatoms were primarily influenced by light and wind. The Chl- A was higher at the sub-Antarctic front (SAF) followed by the sub-tropical front (STF) and the polar front (PF). The diatom concentration was higher at the SAF followed by the PF and STF. Maximum concentration of Chl- A and diatoms commonly observed at the SAF region are probably due to the moderate PAR, SST and wind. Dominance of diatoms at the PF may be attributed to their adaptability for low light conditions. The results from this study in the frontal ecosystems would help to understand the biogeochemical cycle of the Indian sector of the SO.
According to the general classification of shallow eutrophic lakes, two alternative types are distinguished: phytoplankton-dominated and macrophyte-dominated lakes. The latter type is rare and currently endangered by human activity. In order to determine the effect of reduced inflow of surface water by an earth dyke on the lake trophic state, certain biological and physico-chemical parameters were evaluated. This work focuses on two lakes of similar morphometric characteristics situated in the agricultural landscape. The effect of the earth dyke on the trophic state was positively verified. The lake situated in the catchment basin, in which the inflow of surface water was reduced, was defined as meso-eutrophic, with a small amount of phytoplankton and high water transparency. The reference lake was highly eutrophic, with low water transparency and a large amount of phytoplankton. The water body surrounded by the earth dyke was macrophytes dominated (65% of the lake area), whereas the reference lake was a phytoplankton-macrophyte type (42% of the lake area). The trophic evaluation of a lake can be underestimated because of a significant amount of biogenic compounds accumulated in plant tissues. Thus, the values of Carlson’s indices in macrophyte-dominated lakes may not account for the total amount of nutrients in the water body.