cAMP is a second messenger which plays a regulatory role in a wide variety of biological processes in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes, but knowledge of its role in macroalgae and vascular plants is limited. We modified cAMP levels in the macroalga Chara vulgaris thallus and studied the effects on thallus growth and gametangia development: db-cAMP (permeable analog of cAMP), adenylate cyclase (AC) activator, forskolin and theophylline (cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor) were used to elevate cAMP levels, and the AC inhibitors 2'-dAdo and 2'-d3'-AMP were used to decrease them. The results suggest that in Chara vulgaris the cAMP pathway may regulate both vegetative thallus growth and gametangia development, and that these effects may depend on this second-messenger level. Elevated cAMP stimulated thallus growth and delayed gametangia development; decreased cAMP inhibited thallus growth and accelerated maturation of both antheridia and oogonia. These results suggest that the cAMP pathway participates in regulation of developmental processes in Chara vulgaris and that thallus growth and gametangia development require different cAMP levels in cells.
Based on theatricality, humour and camp aesthetics, the novel Lubiewo (2005) by the Polish writer Michał Witkowski recounts the tragicomic lives and adventures of Polish queers under Communism. One of the main features of the novel is the meaning-bearing nicknames of the characters, which result from the camp practice of “queer renaming”. This relies on transforming or substituting male proper names with ironic and witty female nicknames. The paper analyses the German, French, English and Czech translations of the novel to explain the strategies used to render such “talking nouns” in new linguistic-cultural contexts.