The possibility of construction disputes can be reduced, but they cannot be avoided due to the uncertain and risky nature of the building industry. Conflicts between construction parties often have very unfavourable effects, such as cost increases, poor construction quality and time extension in the schedule. Lots of studies have been carried out in order to try and avoid these disagreements. However, there are no common resolution tools or techniques due to the improving conditions and scope of contracted works. Advanced methods and dispute reasons should be fully monitored and updated for the applicable solutions. This paper discusses the current major constructional dispute reasons in Turkey. The questionnaire method was applied within the scope of this study. The questionnaire documents were randomly distributed to 80 contractors to analyse major dispute reasons in Turkey. Analysis of the questionnaire results indicates that the major current dispute causes are poor quality of performed works, delays in progress payments, inefficient site management, poorly written contracts and design mistakes.
This article aims to identify potential risk factors affecting the implementation and synchronisation of surveying and construction works during building and operation of roads. The task was executed on the basis of literature studies and experience. The article is an introduction to the research that has been conducted by the authors on the reasonably precise index of factors which one may deal with during the implementation of facilities of this type. The raised issue is crucial for financial and time reasons, but what is important in the roads construction - also for social ones, as prolonged traffic disruption adversely affects the environment.
The article presents research results of the strength parameters of HPC achieved in various research conditions. The research was carried out on substantially different samples, both as to the size as the slenderness ratio. Moreover, the assessment of the effect of speed of a load on strength parameters as well as other factors which in a significant way show the difference in the strength values was made. For comparison, the results were also applied to the relations known in ordinary concrete.
Supplementing well recognised practical models of project and construction management, based on probabilistic and fuzzy events may make possible to transfer the weight of the change and extra orders assessment from the qualitative form to a quantitative one. This assessment, however, is naturally burdened with an immeasurable, subjective aspect. Elaboration of probability of occurrence in a construction project unforeseen building works requires application (in addition to the non-measureable, qualitative criteria) of measurable (quantitative) criteria which still appear during construction project implementation. In reimbursable engineering contracts, a random event described as an extra, supplementary building work has a random character and occurs with a specific likelihood. In lump sum contracts, on the other hand, such a random event has a fuzzy character and its occurrence is defined in a linear manner by the function of affiliation to the set of fuzzy events being identical with unforeseen events. The strive for quantitative presentation of criteria regarded by nature as qualitative and the intention to determine relations between them led to the application of the fuzzy sets theory to this issue. Their properties enable description of the unforeseen works of construction projects in an unambiguous, quantitative way.
The purpose of this article is to present the preparation of Project Risk Assessment Methodology and its mitigation in complex construction projects. The main text provides a summary of the approach, the method used and the findings. The conclusions have been drawn that the proper tools for quantifying risks have to be based on the criteria specific for mathematical statistic and probability or at least fuzziness. Function, which makes possible to categorize any risks into one of the five categories, is a combination of probability and the impact on one of the items: people and their safety or budget, cost, schedule and planning or quality and performance. An attempt was made to express numerically the relationship between risks impacts and their level of likelihood. Also, a method of associating the influence of projects risks impacts on the extent of the likelihood of project risk occurrence which makes possible to determine the direction and the strength of this relationship was presented.
This article discusses an integrated concept of sustainable building and of Building Information Modelling (BIM) by means of implementation of the Green BIM management method. Apart from presenting this innovative project management method with particular attention paid to solutions applied by Scandinavian enterprises, the article aims at analysing institutional conditions regarding application of the Green BIM within Polish construction companies. Arguments presented in the article are based on results of a scientific review and industry specific publications. Moreover, the article discusses case studies of projects completed with the implementation of the Green BlM method.
The article presents an analysis and evaluation of the accident rate in selected European Union countries. On the basis of available statistical data, the analysis of accidents in various sectors of the European Union economy was carried out. Afterwards, a ranking of countries regarding accidents in the construction industry was developed. For the selected representative countries, analysis of changes in the indicators which characterize the accident rate during the period between 2008 and 2012 was carried out. Conclusions resulting from the conducted research were formulated.
This paper brings up the issue of population aging and its influence on designing and construction of buildings in Poland. It also touches the problem of adaptation of existing facilities to the needs of the elderly and the disabled. Moreover, current trends in Polish demographics and possible outlook for the next 45 years has been presented. The author presents the current legal state concerning rules and regulations on the aspects of adjusting the buildings and their parts to the needs of the disabled. Additionally, the dimensions and the areas of movement for the disabled as well as the primary functional and requirements for bathrooms have been described. In the next paragraph, a concept of Ambient Assisted Living with examples of sanitary equipment for use in residential buildings has been propose.
In the authors’ opinion, the issue of incorrectly functioning water insulation of foundation walls in the existing buildings in Poland is currently rather common. The paper includes a multicriteria analysis aimed at arranging the selected options of the foundation wall vertical water insulation technology in an existing model historic building using the weighted sum, entropy and AHP methods. Each of the studied solutions was evaluated in terms of the following criteria: costs of construction works, time of execution of construction works, popularity of using particular insulation options by other contractors, durability of the executed insulation and the degree of nuisance of the executed works
The article raised issues related to the design and execution of low-energy objects in Polish conditions. Based on the designed single-family house, adapted to the requirements of the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management ("NF40" standard), the tools to assist investment decisions by investors were shown. An economic analysis and a multi-criteria analysis were performed using AHP method which had provided an answer to the question whether it is worthwhile to bear higher investment costs in order to adjust to the standards of energy-efficient buildings that fulfil a minimal energy consumption's requirements contained in Polish law. In addition, the variant of object that had optimal characteristics due to the different preferences of investors was indicated. This paper includes analysis and observations on the attempts to unify that part of the building sector, which so far is considered to be personalized, and objects in accordance with the corresponding idea are designed as "custom-made".
The need for modernization of curricula is growing with the development of new technologies to support teaching, changes in business strategy of universities in Poland and European Union, and development of the society. In response to these changes, at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Poznan University of Technology, new English-language specialty master studies – Construction Technology Management was launched in March 2014. Studies are based on the cooperation between the student, the industry and the university, allowing students to get to know the specifics of the construction industry. In addition, Poznan University of Technology is involved in an MBAIC project MBA in construction aimed at common study for postgraduates.The synergy achieved through the implementation of these two projects enables the possibility to educate construction managers capable of communication in English, possessing knowledge regarding innovation in the construction industry, who are well prepared to enter the labour market and have the possibility of subsequent improvement of managerial competences.
W artykule przedstawiono przykłady architektury eksperymentalnej w zakresie budownictwa jednorodzinnego na przełomie lat 60’ i 70’ XX w. Realizacje te były odpowiedzią na ograniczenia normatywne dotyczące powierzchni użytkowej domów jednorodzinnych, braki w dostępności materiałów budowlanych oraz potrzebę intensyfikacji zabudowy. Przedstawiono dwa przykłady realizacji domów kopułowych o różnej konstrukcji oraz dwa przykłady mini osiedli w zabudowie atrialnej.
This article shows incidents associated with the use of gas as an energy carrier. It presents selected incidents which have occurred in Poland and around the world in recent decades. Based on this, consequences of gas and air mixture explosions were analysed as well. The article presents the main causes of gas incidents which have taken place, as per instances which are similar worldwide. Incidents associated with the use of gas are not frequent, but at the same time very tragic as they often lead to illness or even death. In Poland, in the last twenty years, construction area disasters caused by gas explosions account for only 5% of all which have occurred, but the number of fatalities resulting from these cases is approximately 14%. The number of individuals injured reached 39% of all construction disaster victims. Considering all these facts, it is necessary to undertake wide preventive measures in order to increase safety in the use of gaseous fuels.
In the paper the topic of Building Information Technology BIM is investigated. It is new in Polish circumstances technology for construction and for building product industry, which contribute to change and develop level of industrialization. Especially challenge raising from the information and introducing IT technology into daily practice is considered to provide changes in construction branch of economy. In Poland there is the hot need of start to introduce BIM as the common technology for owners of assets, facility management, construction entities, design offices, administration officers and many other players relative to construction data and processes. BIM technology introduction, basing on foreign case studies, results in cost savings, control and time reduction of investment processes and some more advantages. The perspective of digital buildings, digital infrastructure, digital roads, digital railways and digital cities is outlined at the perspective of technology challenge, but simply transfiguration of many fields of personal everyday life, where digitalization is already present and with the question when it will be common in professional activity, particularly in civil engineering.
W przeciągu najbliższych lat budownictwo (zwłaszcza mieszkaniowe) czekają nieuniknione zmiany w zakresie technologii, eksploatacji i całej filozofii projektowania, które okażą się być może tak rewolucyjne dla budownictwa i architektury, jak chociażby wynalezienie żelbetu. W artykule omówiono problematykę związaną z definiowaniem i certyfikowaniem budynków zrównoważonych. Wprowadzenie jednolitego, obowiązkowego systemu oceny i certyfikacji dla budynków zrównoważonych jest prawdopodobnie kwestią najbliższych kilku lat. Obecnie najbardziej popularne są systemy BREEAM dla budynków użyteczności publicznej i CSH dla budynków mieszkalnych.
The mining methods are classified as the methods of data analysis and the knowledge acquisition and they are derived from the methods of "Knowledge Discovery". Within the scope of these methods, there are two main variants associated with a form of data,i.e.: "data" and "text mining". The author of the paper tries to find an answer to a question about helpfulness and usefulness of these methods for the purpose of knowledge acquisition in the construction industry. The very process of knowledge acquisition is essential in terms of the systems and tools operating based on knowledge. Nowadays, they are the basis for the tools which support the decision-making processes. The paper presents three cases studies. The mining methods have been applied to practical problems – the selection of an adhesive mortar coupled with alternative solutions, analysis of residential real estate locations under construction by a developer company as well as support of technical management of a building facility with a large floor area.