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Abstract

The study included bituminous coal seams (30 samples coal from the Bogdanka and Chełm deposits) of the Lublin Formation, the most coal-bearing strata in the best developed and recognized in terms of mining parts of the Lublin Coal Basin in Poland. High phosphorus concentrations in coal of the Lublin Formation were found (1375 g/Mg) as well as P2O5 in coal ash (2.267 wt%). The phosphorus contents in coal and coal ash from the 385 and 391 coal seams in the area of the Lubelski Coal Bogdanka Mine and in the area of its SE neighbor is the highest (max. 2.644 wt. % in coal and 6.055 wt. % of P2O5 in coal ash). It has been shown that mineral matter effectively affects phosphorus contents in coal and coal ash. At the same time, phosphate minerals (probably apatite and crandallite) present in kaolinite aggregates of tonsteins contain the most of phosphorus and have the greatest impact on the average P content in the 382, 385, 387, and 391. The secondary source of phosphorus in these coal seams and main source of phosphorus in these coal deposits that do not contain mineral matter of pyroclastic origin (378, 389, 394) may be clay minerals, which absorbed phosphorus compounds derived from organic matter released during coalification. Phosphorus-rich ash from the combustion of the Lublin Formation coal tend to be environmentally beneficial to the environment and also useful for improving the soil quality. Due to the low degree of coalification and high content of phosphorus in coal, this coals of little use for coking.
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Abstract

Volatility is one of the most characteristic features in the all market types. In the raw material market, including the bituminous coal market, volatility is visible in the supply and demand variations, in consequence in the prices fluctuations. Market actors usually having opposite interests, for example buy low, sell high, are vitally interested in identifying the causes of these fluctuations. Some of the factors causing the market fluctuations are quite common, others are more complicated because of circumstances complexity. This article attempts to examine the relationships between bituminous coal fines prices and the economic situation. Given the complexity of the issue, the research area has been narrowed down – territorially to Poland and temporarily – to the present decade. The average prices of coal fines in Poland are presented by the Industrial Development Agency (Agencję Rozwoju Przemysłu SA) in the form of two indices: PSCMI 1 and PSCMI 2. Both indices are calculated based on the prices of pattern bituminous coal, produced by domestic manufacturers and sold on domestic markets, the energy and heat market respectively. Statistical methods, because of their quantitative nature, are important in identifying the correlations between the coal fines prices and economic conditions. Therefore, the article presents examples of relatively strong linear correlations between the PSCMI 1 and/or PSCMI 2 and some indicators of the economic situation.
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Abstract

Studies on the quality of bituminous coal are mainly focused on physico-chemical analysis, examining the ash content, sulphur content, volatile matter content, moisture content, and the Net Calorific Value of coal. Until now, the above mentioned parameters form the basis of the Polish Standard PN-82/87002, on the basis of which individual types of bituminous coal are determined. In addition, an elemental analysis, providing information about the content of primary elements in the organic matter of solids, i.e. coal, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulphur, is carried out for the selected samples. This issue has been studied by many authors, which undoubtedly provide invaluable knowledge due to the huge amount of data, but, as the authors themselves indicate, the knowledge of the petrography of coal, coking properties (Probierz et al. 2012) and finally the coke obtained from individual coal types (based on tests carried out using the Karbotest installation or the so-called „box tests” performed in the coke oven battery) is still very limited. The article discusses the impact of petrographic composition on the quality of metallurgical coke. The analysis was performed using samples of coking coal from the following mines: Pniówek, Zofiówka, Borynia, and Krupiński. The mentioned coal types are used to produce coke mixtures used for the production of coke in the Przyjaźń and Radlin coking plants. Based on the rank of coal and physicochemical parameters, the mentioned coal types were classified according to the Polish classification and the UN/ECE International Classification of In-Seam Coals (UN/ECE 1995). The prediction of thermomechanical properties of coke (CSR and CRI) performed according to the original CCP method were compared with the results obtained using the classical method of Nippon Steel Corporation.
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