Quantitative resistance in barley to four Fusarium head blight (FHB) species was investigated in vitro. Nine components involved in three assays (detached leaf, modified Petridish and seedling tests) were compared on two widely grown Syrian barley cultivars: Arabi Aswad (AS) and Arabi Abiad (AB). On AB, inoculation with FHB species resulted in a significantly shorter latent period and larger lesion length of detached leaf inoculation, more standardized area under disease progress curve (AUDPCstandard) of modified Petridish inoculation and a higher percentage of infected seedlings of pin-point inoculation than on AS. The latent period of AB was 14.89% less than AS, lesion length of AS was 6.01% less than AB, AUDPCstandard of AS was 17.07% less than AB and the percentage of infected seedlings of AS was 4.87% less than AB. Inoculation with FHB species resulted in no significant differences in the other five components measured: incubation period of detached leaf inoculation, germination rate reduction and coleoptile length reduction of modified Petridish inoculation, percentage of infected seedlings of foliar-spraying inoculation and lesion length of clip-dipping inoculation. AS was more resistant to in vitro FHB infection than AB. The latent period and AUDPCstandard recorded the highest values compared with the lowest values for lesion length and percentage of infected seedlings. It seems that measurement of the latent period and AUDPCstandard may be useful in identifying barley cultivars which are highly susceptible or resistant to FHB at early stages.
Barley scald, caused by Rhynchosporium commune is one of the most prevalent diseases in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) worldwide. The primary loss from scald is reduced yield, which can exceed 25% in dry areas. In our earlier studies, we developed a low-resolution linkage map for recombinant inbred lines of the cross Tadmor/WI2291. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for scald were localized on chromosomes 2H and 3H flanked by Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers HVM54 and Bmac0093b on 2H and HVLTPP8, HVM62 and Bmag0006 on 3H. These chromosome 3H markers were found to be located close to the Rrs1 − R. commune resistance gene(s) on chromosome 3H. In this study, 10 homozygous resistant and 10 homozygous susceptible plants each from the F7 population of Tadmor/ Sel160, a panel of 23 barley varieties used routinely in the International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) breeding program and three populations were used for scald resistance screening using 25 DNA markers that are located very close to scald resistance gene(s) on barley chromosomes. Only five of those markers clearly discriminated co-dominantly between resistant and susceptible plants. These markers, Ebmac0871- SSR, HVS3-SCAR, Bmag0006-SSR, reside on different arms of barley chromosome 3H. Ebmac871 is localized on the short arm of 3H and HVS3 and Bmag0006 are localized on the long arm of 3H. This result indicates that the scald resistance genes which they tag are probably close to the centromeric region of this chromosome. Scald resistance from several sources map to the proximal region of the long arm of chromosome 3H, forming the complex Rrs1 locus. The availability of highly polymorphic markers for the discrimination of breeding material would be extremely useful for barley breeders to select for the trait at the DNA level rather than relying on phenotypic expression and infection reaction.
Barley phylloplane is seriously colonized by Drechslera graminea, the causal agent of leaf stripe disease in the hos. The present study involved the elucidation of alterations induced in the protein content of the host due to Drechslera infection. Naturally growing barley plants were obtained from fields and Drechslera graminea was isolated and identified from diseased plants’ leaves. After identification and preparation of the pure culture, the pathogen was inoculated on plants grown under aseptic and controlled laboratory conditions. Changes in the total soluble cytoplasmic proteins and defense enzymes of the host such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX), phenylalanine lyase (PAL) and tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) were observed up to 5 h after inoculation. The results demonstrated a significant effect of the pathogen on the cytoplasmic protein expression of the host as well as in its defense system.