Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate (H1) and fluazifop- -P-butyl (H2) herbicides with adjuvants on the common reed without cutting and at two different cutting levels (10 and 30 cm). The adjuvants were urea, nitric acid and sulfonic acid. The relative importance value (RIV), leaf chlorophyll content and plant density were determined to assay the efficacy of herbicides. Glyphosate treatment only (H1a) was more effective than fluazifop-P-butyl (H2a) on reeds without cutting and at the 10 cm cutting level. However, no significant difference was observed between them at the 30 cm cutting level. A positive effect of plant cutting occurred on the efficacy of all herbicides applied alone or in a tank mix with adjuvants. Furthermore, the 10 cm cutting level was more effective in eradication of reeds than the 30 cm cutting level. The adjuvants significantly improved the efficacy of the recommended (Hb) and half recommended (Hc) herbicide rates in comparison to being used alone on uncut reeds. The reduction percentages were 94.5, 86.99, 76.61 and 69.94 for H1b, H1c, H2b and H2c treatments, respectively. However, the adjuvants did not improve the glyphosate effect at different levels of cutting. Conversely the reduction percentage of reeds was improved by the recommended rate of fluazifop-P-butyl with adjuvants (H2b) to 92.77% and 84.62% at 10 and 30 cm cutting levels, respectively.
Phosphorothioate CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) are reported to be recognized by the membrane-bound TLR9 and trigger the MyD88-dependent up-regulation of Type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Whether plasmids containing multiple CpG motifs stimulate the same signaling pathway is yet to be determined. The present results show that the CpG motifs enrich plasmid pUC18-CpG stimulates RAW 264.7 in vitro, mainly through the TBK1-mediated signaling pathway, causing the up-regulation of IFN-β, and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. When pUC18-CpG is co-administered with the recombinant Echinococcus granulosus antigen, the antigen-specific antibody titers are markedly increased compared to the Quil-A adju- vanted group. Antigen specific cytokine quantification shows that cytokine profiles from the pUC18-CpG adjuvanted-group are switched to a Th1-biased immune response.