Hybryd PLD method was used for deposition high quality thin Ti, TiN, Ti(C,N) and DLC coatings. The kinetic energy of the evaporated particles was controlled by application of variation of di#11;erent reactive and non reactive atmospheres during deposition. The purpose was to improve adhesion by building a bridge between the real ceramic coating and the substrate. A new layer composition layout was proposed by application of a bu#11;er, starting layer. Advanced HRTEM investigation based on high resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to reveal structure dependence on specific atmosphere in the reactive chamber. New experimental technique to examine the crystallographic orientation based on X-ray texture tomography was applied to estimate contribution of the atmosphere to crystal orientation. Using Dictyostelium discoideum cells as a model organism for specific and nonspecific adhesion, kinetics of shear flow-induced cell detachment was studied. For a given cell, detachment occurs for critical stress values caused by the applied hydrodynamic pressure above a threshold. Cells are then removed from the substrate with an apparent first-order rate reaction that strongly depends on the stress. The threshold stress depends on cell size and physicochemical properties of the substrate, but it is not a#11;ected by depolymerization of the actin and tubulin cytoskeleton.
The strength of conveyor belts splices made in mines rarely reaches full belt strength. It consists of a number of factors. The primary is the method of their construction and proper selection of ingredients. The significant impact has also has splice quality covering both keeping proper geometry matched to the belt construction and belts working conditions and adherence to the best practices in the field of technologies of their construction.Difficult conditions in underground mines and pressure on reducing conveyor downtime (avoiding production losses) is reflected by a drop in static and dynamic splices strength. This is confirmed by numerous studies of belt splices strength and fatigue life conducted in the Laboratory of Belt Conveying (LTT) within the framework of research and expert opinions commissioned by belt manufacturers and their users. The consequence of too insufficiently low belt splices strength is their low durability, decreasing reliability and, consequently, higher mining transportation costs. Belt splices are in fact the weakest link in the serial structure which form closed loops of interconnected belt sections working in series of conveyors transporting excavated material in the mine. The article presents the results of simulation analyzes analyses investigating how the increase of belt splices durability may contribute to the reduction of transportation costs in the underground mines.
Postoperative adhesion (POA) is a common and well-known complication with an estimated risk of 50-100%. The antioxidant effect of n-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) can increase intracellular glutathione levels, thereby reducing adhesion. This study was conducted to compare the outcomes of NAC nanoparticles (Nano-NAC) on intra-abdominal adhesion (IAA) after laparotomy in rat. A total of 25 male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: 50 mg/kg Nano-NAC, 75 mg/kg Nano-NAC, 150 mg/kg Nano-NAC, NAC and control. During the surgical procedure, some sections (2×2cm) were collected through abdominal midline incision to ensure the infliction of peritoneal damage by a standard adhesion. Macroscopic evaluation was performed on the 14th and 28th day and blood samples were collected to evaluate the inflammatory factor (C-reactive protein) on days 0, 14 and 28. According to the serologic results (CRP test), C-reactive protein was at highest level in 150 mg/kg Nano-NAC and control groups and at lowest level in 50 mg/kg Nano-NAC and 75 mg/kg Nano-NAC groups (p<0.001). The macroscopic evaluation results showed that frequency of adhesion bands was significantly lower in 50 mg/kg Nano-NAC group than the control at the intervals. Results showed that the intraperitoneal administration of lower Nano-NAC dosages (50 and 75 mg/kg) had a major role in the management of postoperative inflammation. Nano-NAC administration was proved feasible, safe and effective in reduction of the C-reactive protein level.
An alternative approach of the determining of conditions of safe stability loss of rectilinear motion of a wheeled vehicle model with controlled wheel module in the sense of N.N. Bautin is considered. The slipping forces are presented accurate within cubic expansion terms in the skid angles. Terms and conditions of safe stability loss depend on the ratio between the coefficients of resistance to the skid, the adhesion coefficients in the transverse direction of the axes and the parameter of torsional stiffness of the controlled wheel module. The presented approach to the analysis of real bifurcations related to the divergent loss of rectilinear motion mode stability has a clear geometric pattern: if in the vicinity of rectilinear motion at subcritical speed, there are additionally two unstable circular stationary states, then the stability limit is of dangerous nature in the sense of N.N. Bautin; if two circular stationary modes exist at supercritical speed, the limit of the stability loss in the parameter space of the longitudinal velocity is safe in the sense of N.N. Bautin. Analysis of the number of stationary modes in the vicinity of the critical velocity of rectilinear motion is performed for the obtained determining equation - cubic binomial.
To explore the basic principles of hierarchical materials designed from nanoscale and up, we have been studying the mechanics of robust and releasable adhesion nanostructures of gecko . On the question of robust adhesion, we have introduced a fractal-like hierarchical hair model to show that structural hierarchy allows the work of adhesion to be exponentially enhanced as the level of structural hierarchy is increased. We show that the nanometer length scale plays an essential role in the bottom-up design and, baring fracture of hairs themselves, a hierarchical hair system can be designed from nanoscale and up to achieve flaw tolerant adhesion at any length scales. For releasable adhesion, we show that elastic anisotropy leads to orientation-dependent adhesion strength. Finite element calculations revealed that a strongly anisotropic attachment pad in contact with a rigid substrate exhibits essentially two levels of adhesion strength depending on the direction of pulling.